Human Sexuality Lecture Notes.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course Code
SOC 152A
Professor
Mark Baldwin

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Lecture 1 – Introduction and Anatomy 1/9/2012 1:54:00 PM  Four parts of course  Anatomy and physiology  Psychology  Birth control and abortion  Sociology  Sex: mix of mental, physical, emotional components  Anatomy  Female o Vulva: outside portion of female genitalia o Mons (mons veneris): o Labia majora: hair on them, come together at line, closed yet when aroused open o Labia minora: no hair on them, when sexually aroused more blood flows through enlarging them o Clitoral hood: o Clitoris: most sensitive erogenous zone o Vaginal opening (introitus): large enough to insert tampon whether virgin or not  Water/silicon based lubrications are safe for the vagina o Hymen: historically important; some hymens don‟t break and just stretch; annular hymen, septate hymen, cribriform hymen, torn hymen Lecture 2 - Anatomy 1/9/2012 1:54:00 PM  Female  Perineum: between vagina and anus  Pelvic floor muscles: contracts at orgasm  Vagina: usually collapsed space (not wide open all the time); expands when stimulated/flexible, unused = 2-3 inches long  G-spot: spot underneath the vaginal wall; close to the urethra; equivalent of male prostate gland – stimulated enlarges it; some women have it, some women don‟t; if stimulated can cause orgasm in some women; some women ejaculate form urethra when g-spot is stimulated  Cervix: bottom end of uterus  Uterus: uterus can be situated in different positions; mostly situated at a right angle from the vagina and to the right that bends over the bladder o Three main components  Endometrium: interior wall of uterus  comes out day 1 of menstruation  Myometrium: middle layer (big)  Peremitrium: tough outer layer (thin)   GET RID OF PMS: calcium + vitamin D o Ex: 2-3 glasses of milk per day  Oviducts: about the size of a piece of spaghetti  Cilia: the little hair-like things in the oviducts that push the egg out of the vagina  Ovaries: one on each side of the vagina; about the size of an unshelled almond  Follicle: sack containing one egg; developed in the ovaries; most of them die over the time of the menstrual cycle  one egg (ovum) “survives” (is ovulated)  Ova/ovum: eggs/egg;  Breasts: contain milk ducts and fat  Areola: area around nipple  Nipple: where milk leaves the breast  It‟s harder for mammograms to reveal breast cancer if female has breast implants  soy implants have more natural shape and allow x-rays to pass through to detect cancer  Male  Penis: differs whether circumcised/uncircumcised; differs in size from person to person/aging  Glans: “head”   Small penis = large erection  Large penis = same size erection as flaccid penis   Foreskin: foreskin contracts with penetration; circumcised vs. uncircumcised Male Anatomy Continued 1/9/2012 1:54:00 PM  Smegma: underneath foreskin; don‟t want heavy build up  Uncircumcised males are more likely to contract HIV than circumcised males  Uncircumcised males have 3x greater risks of contracting STI‟s  Corpus spongiosum: urethra runs through it; anchors penis to body (in female: forms glans of clitoris and around vagina opening)  Corpus cavernosum: connects to pubic bone; anchors penis to body (in female: makes up shaft underneath clitoris; extends in a wishbone shape)  Corona: glans, crown, head  Frenulum: very sensitive piece of skin from shaft to glans  Muscles  Ischiocavernosus muscles  Bulbo-cavernosus muscles  Scrotum: sack that contains testicles; it can move depending on temperature outside (higher up when cold/during ejaculation, lower in general position, even lower during strenuous activity/hot weather)  Testicles: aka testes; divisions (like in an orange) separate testes into lobes  Seminiferous tubules: where sperm develops o each tubule = 1-3 feet long o epididymis: where sperm go to mature (20 feet of tubing)  Sperm: hundreds of sperm made per day  Interstitial cells: in the testicles; cells that produce testosterone  After vasectomy: can still ejaculate, but semen is rid of sperm  Ejaculatory ducts: short, vas deferens go around through them, sperm dumped into ejaculatory ducts  eventually to urethra  Prostate gland: older a man gets = more likely to acquire prostate cancer (prostate exams); 30% of ejaculate comes out of prostate  Seminal vesicles: chemicals in seminal vesicles cause sperms‟ tails to wiggle  Cowper’s gland: right below prostate gland; give off secretion after ejaculation (pre-cum/alkaline fluid) and may contain sperm  can contain enough HIV to transmit AIDS; functions to neutralize the acid of urine in the urethra (acid damages sperm)  Breasts:  Nipples: can produce milk, when baby boys born  sometimes milk secretion (babies in womb exposed to female hormones = explanation to male lactation in infants)  Areola:  Physiology of the sexual response  Unconditioned stimulus ---- unconditioned response  Sex reflex o Touch genitals  vaginal lubrication/penile erection/leads to orgasm o Over time turns to conditioned stimulus -- conditioned response o Conditioned stimulus  Visual images of naked bodies, sexy words, perfumes, etc.  Movie Physiology of the Sexual Response/Male Sexual Response/Beginning Psychology 1/9/2012 1:54:00 PM  Unconditioned stimulus and conditioned stimulus =/= sexual response  Blocks: guilt, fear, anxiety, doubts, depression, etc.  2 physiological mechanisms that mediate the sex reflex  vasocongestion: blood flowing into the genitals  myotonia: increased muscle tension o lifting up of uterus, cervix (tending effect) o orgasm  muscle contractions every 0.8 seconds Male Sexual Response  refractory period: brief period of time (situation, age all alter how long) in which he can‟t engage in sexual activity after orgasming  testicles enlarge  excitement stage  penis slowly becomes erect o in early stages, erection can go away if male is distracted/scared  plateau stage  harder to lose erection  pre-cum (Cowper‟s Gland Secretion)  reflex stage (orgasmic stage)  male orgasm has 2 parts o emission (ejaculatory inevitability)  lasts 2-3 seconds  fluids pumped into ejaculatory ducts and urethra o ejaculation  muscle contractions every 0.8 seconds (forces ejaculate out of body)  first squirts are strongest ones  calms down over time  retrograde ejaculation:  resolution stage  blood flows back away from penis  penis goes back to flaccid state  Similarities between M and F  Orgasm description o Pulsating pleasure in bursts  sacral reflex o M: erection F: lubrication  Throasic and lumbar reflexes o M: firmer erection F: more lubrication  Sacral reflex o M: contractions each 0.8 seconds F: contractions each 0.8 sec  Pelvic congestive syndrome o M: blue balls (skin stretches so much w/o orgasm = pain) o F: Taylor‟s syndrome  The “opposite” sex or the “other” sex?  The “battle of the sexes” or being close with the “other” sex? Psychology  There is a continuum of psych theories:  Biological theories ----- social learning theories  Strong/direct bio influences ------ weak/indirect bio influences  Biology: the beh of simpler species is stronger influenced by biology  Social learning theory: during human evolution, increased brain cortex size led to increased learning capacity  Cortex  Part of brain for learning, memory, thought  In humans, learning can cover up almost all biological differences in male or female  review sessions:  Monday January 23 8-10 pm @ Broida 1610  Tuesday January 24 8-10 pm @ Buchannan 1910 Learning of Sexual Behavior 1/9/2012 1:54:00 PM  Masturbation  Many kids discover masturbation by 2 years old o Explore touching their bodies: natural act for babies o Touch to the genitals = positive  Biologically wired pleasure (primary reinforcer) o Leading to repeating this type of touching o Multiple repetitions lead to increased chances of orgasm  Accidental touching of genitals -- increased skillful masturbation  Parental reactions o Punishment suppresses behavior (if strong enough)  Parents  Accidental sources  Roman Catholic example of “Spooky” the cat jumping on bed  Mechanical devices  Pronged ring around penis  Different things told to keep people from masturbating in the past o Ominism: will cause brain damange o Go blind o Grow hair in your palm  Old view: masturbation leads to insanity  New view: old mental hospitals (1800‟s) lead people to masturbate  Today o Masturbation is seen as normal, natural, commonplace, and usually healthy o Masturbation is bad only if  Done is such excess that a person stops interacting with others  stops learning normal social skills o internet sex  can create problems (distance from girlfriends/boyfriends)  done repeatedly w/ fantasies of inappropriate sex  ex: sex w/ kids, rape, etc. (deviant turn-ons)  person has a willing sex partner(s), but masturbates instead  females are slower to learn to masturbate o their genitals are smaller, hence they‟re less likely to discover pleasure from masturbation o females receive more punishment for masturbation than males receive  learn more inhibitions about doing it o consequently, many females are deprived of important learning about their sexuality  moms are 3x more likely to discuss MORALITY of masturbation w/ daughters than w/ sons  childhood learning (curiosity, observation, exploration) o childhood sex is not based on complex adult motivations or sexual interpretations  most = simple curiosity  hence, don‟t read homosexuality from same-sex curiosity  create teachable moments o situations that will peak a child‟s curiosity o natural motivation in child to ask Q‟s and learn o ex: while bathing, nude in bathroom, changing clothes at the pool  don‟t just teach about sex; show partner interactions o affection o love o care  adolescent learning (experimentation, peer info, books, videos, early sexual adventures) Adolescence 1/9/2012 1:54:00 PM  Male Adolescence  During puberty… sexual arousal begins earlier for boys o Boys: 10-12 years old o Girls: 2-3 years later  During puberty… sexual arousal occurs more often for boys o Boys: several times per day o Girls: one time per week  During puberty… sexual arousal is more intense and distracting for boys o boys: erections o girls: more related to being in a romantic relationship  Sexual arousal comes at night as o Nocturnal erections: often leading to masturbation o Nocturnal orgasms: wet dreams/”nature‟s porn show”  More common in boys than in girls  17x/year in boys  4x/year in girls  Most common sources of sexual arousal o heterosexual boys = nude women o heterosexual girls = romantic books or movies o males get more visual turn-ons than females  especially if males masturbate to visual images  12% females report getting sexually excited by nudes  54% males report getting sexually excited by nudes  For many young men o sex = all please, no costs  “just do it” o teen boys  don‟t now what‟s happening during spontaneous erections, nocturnal orgasms, and masturbation  and no one tells them not to pair these +‟s with thoughts of rape, incest, and pedophilia  hence, boys can accidentally learn “deviant sexual turn-ons”  penis doesn‟t teach empathy, social responsibility, and concern for others  A college study  Females see friendly behavior  Males see flirtation, seductiveness, and sexiness o Can lead to major misunderstandings… males perceive sexual invitations that the females didn‟t intend on sending  Rape o Communication problems can lead to date rape  Erotic kissing, touching, and dancing does not mean the person wants sex  Alcohol = liquid courage o Gives people excuses to do things they wouldn‟t necessarily do o Alcohol affects females 2x more powerfully than males  Females don‟t have as much of the alcohol breaking down enzyme as males do o Date rape drugs = odorless and tasteless  Ex: roofies (rohypnol)  Deteriorates motor skills and sense of time  Stay safe  Cover your drink  Don‟t put your drink down  Female Adolescence o Females tend to be less interested in sex  More interested in romance  Have fears and inhibitions  Pregnancy  STD/STI‟s  Worry about being labeled “loose” or a “slut”  Sex anxieties based on prior incest, rape, or abuse Sexual Coercion  Many males are under strong pressure to become sex experts  Thus, want to have multiple sexual partners/experiences  30% of males feel it is okay to say “I love you” to get a female to have sex Adolescence/Kinky Sex/Adult Sex/Pregnancy and Childbirth 1/9/2012 1:54:00 PM  UCSB culture  many students think a large percent of students hook-up for one night stands  fewer people hook up than people think  40-45% of those who hook up have “really terrible experiences” o too much alcohol/drugs o pressure to go further than they want o rape, assault st  people have p/v sex on 1 day o 1988: 38% o 2007: 26%  urban myth of “lots of sex hook-ups” o 1988: 17% believed o 2007: 29% believed  random study from 152A o total # of sex partners in your lifetime o F: 1-2 partners = most o M: 1-2 = most (higher percentages in general than F)  Exploring different positions  A  + + +  B  + - +  C  - + -  - = painful experience  + = rewarding experience o genital stimulation and orgasm o partner‟s pleasure o novelty (new, exciting, etc.)  kinky sex  5 steps to B&D/S&M o pins him down on the bed o ties gently o ties tighter o slaps o hits  playing kinky games creates novelty, a fun game = +  which rewards exploring step 1  novelty of step 1 wears off leads to step 2, etc.  NOTE: have a safe word  Adult sex  When people get older, sex life declines gradually  Studies show the people can have good sex into 70‟s and 80‟s o Most cases  the decline is not bio-age determined  Decline o Results from many causes  Decreased novelty of sex  Prevention: Try new positions  Increased competing responses kids, job, commuting, etc.  Prevention: nanny/grandparents/friends to babysit  Increased negative associations with sex  Prevention: sex therapy  Marital dissatisfaction  Prevention: marital therapy  Decline in general health  Prevention: maintain optimum body weight and strenuous cardio exercise  Most common Q: Is it true that males peak sexually around 20, and females around 30-35? o Sex activities at UCSB  Males get into sex earlier than females  more orgasms than females early on  Males get into masturbation earlier than females  Males get nocturnal orgasms way more than females o Male sex lives perk pretty quickly, but doesn‟t decline really fast, but plateaus nicely and stays high o Female sex lives take a little longer to perk up, but don‟t decline, but kind of plateaus and slightly increases over time  Pregnancy and Childbirth (NOT ON TEST)  U.S. census data o % of women age 40-44 who never had children o 1980: 10% o 1998: 19%  penetration of egg by sperm o zona pellucida o perivitelline space o vitelline membrane o ooplasm  human conceptus at 2 cell stage o is early abortion murder? o Hard drugs during pregnancy  facial features stuck in early stages in embryo when born Pregnancy and Childbirth 1/9/2012 1:54:00 PM  PID (pelvic inflammatory disease)  Can lead to ectopic pregnancy o Ectopic pregnancy: any pregnancy that is not in the normal place in the uterus (  Ex: fallopian tubes (most common), cervix, ovary, abdomen, bowel  Ectopic pregnancy is increasing:  Used to be 4/1000 live births, now over 17/1000 live births  Can lead to sterilization o PID 1x  11% chance of sterility o PID 2x  23% chance of sterility o PID 3x  54% chance of sterility  Partial blockage of tubes = ectopic pregnancy  Total blockage of tubes = sterilization  Types of childbirth  Natural childbirth o Painful, high risk of death for mother and infant o Death while birthing  100 years ago = 333 women died per 100,000 births  Today in USA = 10 women die per 100,000 births  Full anesthesia o Problems with full anesthesia  Woman can‟t help push baby out  Anesthesia  medical risks to mother  Depresses baby‟s bio system  Less vigorous sucking = less milk, hence slower early growth and decreased ability to fight off diseases  Partial anesthesia o Reduced version of full anesthesia o Problems similar to full anesthesia, but are much less  Analgesia o Puts the edge off while giving birth (safe for woman for pain relief) o Barbiturates o Tranquilizers  Prepared childbirth o Dick-read  Education alone is all you need o Lamaze  Widely adopted even today  Education  Distraction from pain  Focus on more + alternatives to pain  Relaxation exercises to avoid tensing wrong muscles  Father provides comfort, love, care, and coaching o Other variations  Leboyer o Shame that babies come out crying; wanted to make it better start to life o Turn lights off; baby out = put in warm water  Cesarian birth (C-section) o More and more common (1/3 of births = c-section) o Greater mortality than natural birth Sexually Transmitted Diseases 1/9/2012 1:54:00 PM  STD‟s  sexually transmitted diseases  Names o Used to be called SVD o STI‟s = infections  Even if no disease symptoms are present  Facts o Knowing about STD‟s can help you avoid expensive therapies, sterilization, ectopic pregnancies, and much grief o Females are at 2x greater risk of harm from STI‟s than males are o UCSB Facts  UCSB student health center = friendly and supportive  About difficult issues: pregnancy, STI‟s, HIV/AIDS, etc.  8% of sexually active people at UCSB had a STD in their lifetime  10% male  4% female  Chlamydia o NOT common at UCSB o is common in USA with 3-5 million new cases per year o 2% of sexually active UCSB students have had it:  4% females  <1% males o 70% = asymptomatic (without symptoms)  can cause PID (pelvic inflammatory disease), ectopic pregnancy, and sterilization o moves up into reproductive organs  symptoms: itching or pain; burning on urination; discharge o complications  male: prostatitis, epididymitis, sterility  female: cervictitis, PID, sterility (more common in women)  drugs for treatment are available o get tested  after first treatment, go back in 3-4 months after; people should be tested again because it‟s so easy to contract again  sexually active females should be tested every year (up until age 24) and at MD‟s discretion after 24 o danger to newborn (if mother is infected)  eye infections  pneumonia  genital warts o Facts  in USA, 40 million people infected  3% of sexually active UCSB people have had them  4% females  2% males o caused by HPV virus  similar to, but not the same as, warts on the hand  over 100 strains of HPV  30  genital warts  a few  cervical cancer  1/3 of genital warts are precancerous in females  though cervical cancer is rather easily cured  70% of college people have HPV (or antibodies to it)… showing that they have had it  anal cancer is becoming increasingly more common, due to HPV  can be tested for  at least 72% of throat cancers are caused by HPV-16  oral sex with multiple partners is a risk  1 outbreak  6 weeks – 8 months after infection (average: 3 months)  can be latent for years… (no symptoms, yet contagious)  the body fights off HPV in 6-18 months (usually 6- 12 months)  infected people  go away spontaneously (20% of people)  controlled by MD‟s (60% of people)  very difficult to control (20% of people)  people may have persistent HPV and be contagious  even if warts are in remission and no sores are visible  treatments  chemicals, freezing, electro cautery, laser surgery  now vaccine against HPV  gives nearly 100% protection vs. 2 strains that cause warts and 2 strains of cervical cancer  Gardasil  Pearly penile papulas  Not an STD  Genital herpes o In USA, 1 million new cases per year o UCSB 1% sexually active people had it  1% females  1% males o Herpes 1 & 2  Herpes 1  Cold sores  70% mouth  30% genitals  Herpes 2: usually in genitals, but sometimes in mouth  In USA, 17% people 17-49 years old have herpes 2 (HSV-2)  Herpes outbreak cycles  First outbreaks = biggest and strongest  Time between peaks stretches further apart with time; size of peak gets lower and lower  Over years you don‟t notice herpes as much  Triggers for outbreaks  Sunburn, stress, certain foods, etc.  Average = 5-8 outbreaks in 1 yeart  Outbreaks and treatment drugs (number of outbreaks per year)  1.6 for people taking drugs every day  7.3 for people only taking drugs after outbreaks  Cure/treatments  No cure presently  Drugs help  Can be transmitted when people have no symptoms  To avoid passing herpes to a baby, MD can do cesarean section (avoids baby from passing through vagina) STD‟s continued 1/9/2012 1:54:00 PM  AIDS: acquired immune deficiency syndrome  When you sleep with a person, you sleep with all the prior people you‟ve slept with  UCSB and AIDS o Many people are taking no precautions o Vaginal sex: 32% use condoms 100% of the time; 53% of time = average condom use in last 3 months o Males are more likely to give HIV to females, thus it‟s wise for females to demand safer sex  Anal sex: 26% use condoms 100% of time; 28% of time = average condom use in last 3 months  Anal sex among heterosexual non-virgins: 22% females (1.4 partners), 23% males (1.7 partners)  Anal sex = especially risky because rectal wall is very thin compared to vaginal wall; can transmit HIV easily because tearing = bigger “highway” for STD‟s  Average condom use for anal sex in past 3 months o Heterosexuals 28% o Homosexuals 72%  Alternatives to anal sex o Femoral sex used to be more common than anal sex o Oral sex  Emergency help is exposed to HIV o See a MD and ask for PEP (post exposure prophylaxis) o Begin pills ASAP to lower your risk of infection by 80% o Hotline (888) 448-4911  Willingness to Deceive o Would lie about + HIV test?  Males 20%, females 4% o Would understate number of prior partners  Males 47%, females 42%  History of Disclosure o Have told lie to have sex  34% male, 10% female o lie about ejaculatory control (pulling out)/likelihood of pregnancy (on the pill)  male 38%, female 14%  Have you ever been sexually unfaithful? o Female = 21% yes o Male = 20% yes  Gender Roles  Definition: All behaviors besides sexual behavior that male females and males different  Old view o Two discrete categories  M & F  New view o M ------------------- F o Androgynous in between: having both masculine and feminine interests and behaviors  1/3 of college students are androgynous  Experiment  people are tested to see if traditional or androgynous, then paired as T-T and A-A  traditional: male dominance; little in common; do not coordinate well, distant  androgynous: talked to each other, had things in common, less distance  UCLA study  How heterosexual people are perceived by partners  Males were perceived as more androgynous than females were perceived (by their partners)  Men feared being perceived as self- centered, insensitive machos  Females feared deviating from the female stereotype… being too assertive and competent, etc.  People tend to become more androgynous with increasing age  9-19 = lots of difference between male and female curve  with age, the androgynous gap lessens between males and females  why are men and women quite different often? o Biology  Pre-natal testosterone affects the central nervous system = leads to more rowdy boys  Testosterone effects are noticeable by age 2 Gender Roles Cont. and Sex Therapy 1/9/2012 1:54:00 PM  Society creates a strong pressure for kids to learn traditional gender roles starting at birth  Parents o Know the gender role stereotypes o G: fragile and mild mannered o B: strong and hearty  2-5 years old B‟s show increased preferences for rowdy behavior (fathers tend to reward sons for rowdy behavior) o over time, B‟s and G‟s gradually pull away from each other o Treat B and G differently  Shelter G, roughhouse the B  Fostering dependency for G, and independence for B o Give G‟s and B‟s different rooms, clothing, toys, etc.  fosters different behavior o Parents = role models for different gender roles; kids imitate  Teachers o Teachers like G‟s because G‟s behave “correctly” in school environment (sit quietly, being verbal)  teachers reward G‟s for these behaviors o B‟s have more problems adjusting to school  Hurt by lower verbal skills, higher aggressive/rowdy/impulsive/ADD behaviors  B‟s fall behind in verbal and social skills, G‟s fall behind in athletic, physical, and math skills  Mass Media o Kids spend 4-6 hours per day watching TV/internet/looking at a screen o TV often presents distorted views of sex and gender roles  Does TV affect kids?  Study 1: comparing heavy viewer kids with light viewer kids  Heavy viewers had more stereotyped views of male and female behavior  Study 2: when kids are allowed to watch commercials with non-stereotyped female roles  kids develop less stereotyped views of male and female behavior  Society o many examples of males in power and controlling roles o females in supporting roles  Peer Group o by 10-11 years old, peers socialize B‟s and G‟s quite differently o at first, B‟s and G‟s are similar, but with time (by 10ish years) most different o most 10-11 year olds spend most of time with the same sex, learning little about the other sex‟s behaviors and interests  Teens o Males and females mix more o Leading to increased androgyny o With time, B‟s and G‟s share more in common and gap of differences slowly gets smaller  Marriage o Both F and M often talk about having kids  Science observations show no behavioral differences between baby B and baby G  G‟s are trained to talk and think more about emotions (esp. sad emotions)  B‟s NOT taught to talk and think about emotions (esp. fear)  Sex Therapy  People learn “sexual turn ons” via Pavlovian conditioning  Stimuli present while 1) masturbating or 2) during coitus o Become CS or sexual turn-ons that can arouse sexual feelings/urges  More sex related stimuli that a person pairs with masturbation or coitus = the more turn-ons the person will develop  Males typically get more positive turn-ons for sex than females do Lecture 12 – Sex Therapy and Enrichment 1/9/2012 1:54:00 PM  Do men and women turn on to the same things?  Study 1: physiological measures o Experiment: M and F listen to 1 of 4 different types of tapes of M and F interactions  Erotic  Erotic and romantic  Romantic  No sex, no romance (control group)  Erotic/erotic and romantic: F high turn on both; M high turn on both  Romantic/control: F low turn on both; M low turn on both  Among people who were sexually aroused:  M: 0% did not notice erection  F: 42% didn‟t feel any sexual arousal; 63% didn‟t feel vaginal lubrication  F sexual response = subtle, hard to notice, based on tiny changes in body (compared to penile erection)  F can be sexually aroused and not be aware of it  M are usually aware when they become sexually aroused o Study 2: M and F biological responses to videos  Heterosexual sex  Hetero M: high response  Hetero F: high response  Gay M sex  Gay M: high response  Hetero F: high response  Gay F sex  Gay F: high response  Hetero F: high response  Gay F: high response  M exercising nude  Gay M: high response  Hetero F: medium response  F exercising nude  Hetero M: high response  Hetero F: medium response  Gay F: medium response  Response  M knew what turned them on; F got biologically turned on to MOST stimuli – though often weren‟t aware of which stimuli  F are less aware than M about what turns them on (study 2) and when they are turned on (study 1)  Turn offs  Any –CS (negative conditioned stimulus) that arouses guilt, anxiety, depression, or other negative emotions that turn off the sexual reflex  Sex Therapy and Enrichment  Sex problems in 100 happy couples o 40% of M had some problems o 63% of F had some problems o Occasionally or more often at UCSB:  Little lubrication  Hard to orgasm  No orgasm  Lack of interest  Painful intercourse  Hard to stay erect  Ejaculate too quickly  Therapy and enrichment increase the + turn ons for sex, decrease the – turn offs of fear, guilt, shame, etc.  5 ways to increase the + turn ons for sex o sensate focus  learning how to enjoy being touched and caressed o pleasuring  learning how to touch your partners in ways that feel most + o advance in small steps  starting with nonsexual pleasures  move toward the goal of full sexual interactions o therapists serve as models of sensitive communication  how to talk about se and interpersonal needs in a gentle, considerate manner o encouragement  sex therapy has a high success rate which is encouraging to hear about  people see their own progress each day as they advance through therapy o people start touching in non-genital areas (breasts/genitals off limits at first)  Reduce the –„s in 2 ways o Stop spectating  Stop being a spectator of your own sexual response… all that thinking is distracting  Give your mind a rest; allow your partner to give you your favorite stimulation and the reflex will operate nicely o Avoid performance anxiety  Stop worrying about your ability to achieve some sexual “goal”  There is no goal; just try lots of different things, see what feels good  Learn rom successes and from your failures  Sexual problems o 50% of people will have a major sex problem at least once in life o 1/3 of these could be resolved by having accurate sex info  Examples of sex therapy (useful for UCSB students) o Premature ejaculation  #1 prob for UCSB males  37% of males ejaculate too quickly “occasionally or more often”  two different definitions  Kaplan‟s: premature ejaculation exists when a M ejaculates too fast and does not have voluntary control over the timing of ejac.  1-2 minutes: not premature  sex: stimulus-response  increase the speed of stimulus input   increase speed of response   premature ejaculation  therapies:  the squeeze technique  two fingers on front; one finger in back  alternate in between “squeeze and tease” o slows his excitement down  start with manual stimulation of penis Sex Therapy Continued 1/9/2012 1:54:00 PM  Therapies for Premature Ejaculation  Squeeze tease o Squeeze slows down the male‟s response o Increases time he can have erection and sex w/o ejaculating o Time to learn internal bodily feelings o Learn voluntary control over rate of input to the reflex o Therapy takes place in a series of steps  Manual stimulation  Female on top  Side by side  Male on top  Stop-Start technique (Bernie Zilbergeld) o Stop  Focus on giving pleasure to your partner o Start  Focus on giving pleasure to yourself o Some men can learn stop-start quickly o Others have strong habits for fast, intense sex  Need practice to overcome old habits o Good voluntary control allows males to try some of the advanced + turn-ons  Ex: finger pressure on the perineum o Theory behind Zilbergeld theory  A: male practices alone to gain voluntary control over ejaculation timing  M masturbates by himself using stop-start method; goes to orgasm after 15 minutes; done 3-4 times per week  B: uses this control with partner  Same as step 1, but M uses KY jelly on penis  KY (or other water based lubricant) makes masturbation feel more like penis in vagina  C: masturbation with “subtle adjustments”  Not stop-start  M learns which levels of pressure, tightness of PC muscle, positions, etc. are more or less exciting  Helps him learn voluntary control of excitement  D: masturbate w/ vivid sex fantasies and stop-start (no subtle adjustments)  E: masturbate w/ vivid sex fantasies AND subtle adjustments  F: have a quickie  Provides a contrast that helps the male learn what he was doing wrong in the old days  Helps him gain clearer understanding about good new habits he has just learned  G: have sex with your partner o Going slowly through the process (slow motion) = notice more pleasure  Non-therapies  Common sense methods for dealing with premature ejac.  A. none train voluntary ejaculatory control  B. merely use gimmicks to avoid the problem (instead of solving the problem) o Avoidance retards learning (he may never learn voluntary ejac. Control) Female Sexual Problems 1/9/2012 1:54:00 PM  Female orgasmic problems  Hard to get excited  Hard to stay excited  Hard to reach orgasm  Kinsey‟s book about female sexuality in 1953 o Shocked the nation o 14% of females had experienced multiple orgasms o Bergler and Kroger wrote a book in 1954  Kinsey‟s Myth of Female Sexuality  “nymphomaniacs”  Masters and Johnson in 1960‟s o All females have the potential for multiple orgasm o New problems for women  Pressure to perform  Performance anxiety  Due to pressure to have multiple orgasms  Some fake them  Often males cannot tell real form fake  Therapy and enrichment for female orgasm problems o Masters and Johnson format (not in book)  Non-demanding stimulation of the female genitals  Stimulation with genitals a
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