BIEB 166 Lecture 3 (WI13)

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Biol/Ecology, Behavior, & Evol
BIEB 166
James Nieh

Lecture 3 Bird Singing 1. Proximate a. Causation ○ Air flows through synrinx b. Development ○ neural development allowed bird to develop species-specific songs, although learning also involved 2. Ultimate a. Function ○ singing attracts mates, establishes territory b. Evolutionary History ○ males that sung attracted more mates and were more successful at defending territory by limiting dangerous direct physical encounters - Animals inhabit unique, species-specific perceptual worlds - World of KS -> Innate releasing mechanism (IRM) -> Interactive FAP's Stimulus Sets a. Perceptual world b. All effective stimuli c. Key stimuli (elicit FAP) d. Umwelt UMWELT ("surrounding world") - The subset of perceptible stimuli to which an animal responds when in a given motivational state ○ Eg. Hunger, brooding of the egg, mating Water beetle Dytiscus - Large eyes (good vision) - Good olfaction - Primarily uses olfaction to orient to prey - Eats tadpoles - Experiment: ○ Motivational state: hunger ○ Hunger causes it to focus on smell ○ Sees tadpole behind glass (no response) ○ Add cotton swab, beetle attacks swab - Feeding umwelt: chemical stimuli from tadpoles ○ "The umwelt of the water beetle consists of the smell of a tadpole when the beetle is in the motivational state of hunger" - Conclusion: ○ When motivated by hunger, KS = olfaction (smell of the tadpole) ○ The umwelt: hunger motivation that leads to the animal responding to prey odor ○ The umwelt: hunger motivation that leads to the animal responding to prey odor Fritillary butterfly Argynnis - Male doesn't care about the color/pattern of the female's wings - Female wing beat frequency: 8Hz - Mating umwelt: visual cues from wing beat frequency: (8 beats/ sec) ○ The umwelt of the male Argynnis butterfly is the wing beat frequency of the female when it is in the motivational state of mating - Experiment: ○ Set flicker rate to 75Hz ○ Males are super-attracted ○ Supernormal-releaser Supernormal Releaser (stimulus) - An exaggerated stimulus more effective than the natural KS - Releases a much stronger response ○ Parton/Schwarzenegger effect Herring gull giant egg dummy - The mother gull tends to take care of the large egg, and ignores the smaller egg - Elicits
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