BIEB 166 Lecture 5 (WI13)

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Department
Biol/Ecology, Behavior, & Evol
Course
BIEB 166
Professor
James Nieh
Semester
Spring

Description
Lecture 5 - Not FAP Hormonal Control Behaviors - Hypothalamus & Pituitary Blood-sucking bugs (Rhodnius) - Parasite (kissing bug) 1. Corpus allatum - Secret different hormones for development - Arrested development ○ Juvenile bug has short wings, adult has long wings ○ If cut out part of the brain of juvenile, implant corpus allatum gland to another juvenile ○ Produce a giant juvenile ○ There is something in the brain of a juvenile that keeps it from becoming an adult - "Juvenile hormone" controls transition to adult molt Gypsy moth 1. Transition from a caterpillar to pupae - Metamorphosis - Ecdysone production leads to this transition behavior 2. Take very fine silk threat, sealing the animal after ligating - Ligate (cut the animal in half) and both halves live for some time - Allows to isolate the body parts producing the hormone and test for when the hormone is released - Front half of the animal pupates and the second half does not 3. Ecdysone produced between 7 and 10 days - The signal should send after 7 days ○ If the signal is sent before 7 days, both halves should turn to pupae - If it is ligated at 10 days, both halves pupated ○ Ecdysone is produced and sent to the all the parts that are contacted by the blood stream 4. The signal is produced in the brain - Debrained the caterpillar at 7 days, it remains as a larvae after a long period of time - Remove the brain at 10 days, it pupates, and eventually die Vertebrates Endocrine system 1. Motivation controlled by endocrine system - Combination of neural and glandular mechanisms Hormones - Chemical messages from neurons/glands that influence target organs Reproductive feedback loops - Stimuli cause hormone levels to change -> change behavior -> change hormones - FAP cascade - Endocrine regulation of reproduction is remarkably consistent in many vertebrates, from fish to mammals Ringneck dove (Daniel Lehrman, Rae Silver, Mei Cheng) - Mate multiple times and produce multiple broods within a year ○ Success depends when spring comes and availability of food in the environment ○ Success depends when spring comes and availability of food in the environment 1. Phase 1 (2 days) - Photoperiod + nest material -> hypothalamus -> gonadotropins -> steroids -> courtship 2. Phase 2 (1 week) - Nest building -> rising female progesterone -> egg laying ○ Behaviors are key part in the cycle 3. Phase 3 (2 weeks) - Incubation -> prolactin production increases -> crop develops -> gonadotropins down ○ Nutritious fluid substance to feed the young (crop) 4. Phase 4 (3.5 weeks) - Hatching -> chicks mature -> prolactin down -> gonadotropins up -> back to phase 1 - Only if there is enough time in the breeding season ○ Restart the cycle - Each behavior sets off endocrine or other motivational changes that alter receptivity to subsequent stimuli ○ Pre-programmed ○ Hormones ○ External inputs 5. Experimental evidence - Nest building and incubation ○ Birds need to build their own nest, can release incubation with fake eggs ONLY after they build their own nest - Female steroid hormones ○ Remove ovaries, then females no longer respond to appropriate environmental stimuli - Incubation and prolactin ○ Male prolactin production (leading to crop milk production) stimulated by watching female incubating - Sensory stimuli -> neural & endocrine mechanisms -> behavior ○ Can have this occurring in a loop Gonadotropins Steroids Effects of social stimuli on reproductive biology Anolis carlinensis (David Crews) 1. Ethogram of reproductive displays - A record of behavioral activities - Motion patterns in Anole Headbobs displays ○ Increasing rate, decreasing the motion amplitude 2. Female protein: vitellogenins (egg yolk precursor) -
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