BIEB 166 Lecture 8 (WI13)

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Biol/Ecology, Behavior, & Evol
BIEB 166
James Nieh

Lecture 8 Learning Associative learning 1. Classical conditioning 2. Operant conditioning Non-associative learning - Events are not associated 1. Latent learning - Familiarization with a stimulus without obvious positive or negative reinforcement (at the moment it is learning) - This is an example of non-associative learning Wasp learning nest entrance location - Latently learning where the landmark is - Burrow is a very inconbiquious - May cover the burrow with rocks 1. Wasp inside the experimental setup - Put pine cones and place around the burrow - Looping flight when the wasp departs - While the wasp was away, the experimenter created a sham nest, with cones around and poked a fake whole - If the wasp has learned the location of the nest, it would search for the sham nest instead of its real one - Not rewarded or punished as it learned the information - The moment it is learning is before it leaves the nest, so even though there is a punishment after it comes back, that is not an associate learning Insight learning - Problem solving through perception of configurational relationships as opposed to trial and error; nebulous - Relationships between objects and environment - Difficult to prove Chimpanzees - Hanging the banana at the ceiling - Learning the right type of tool - Playing with the tools, and finally use the tools to solve problems - Can be insight learning, but also can be something random Pigeon - Use operant conditioning to do the experiment in order to prove that the animal is not natural behavior 1. Move the box for food reward - There is a black circle in the cage - Whenever the box is moved to the black circle, the pigeon is rewarded with a banana - The pigeon will learn the task 2. Separate training, bird must stand on box for banana 3. Create a new situation in which the box can be moved around and also there is a banana hanging - The bird need to move the box to the black circle, and stand on the box in order to get an banana - Insight: to move the box underneath the banana, and to get on top of the box in order to get the food - Alternative: it is lucky Learning set & reasoning Learning set & reasoning - Generalization African parrot Imitation learning - Copying the example in one individual - Learning by observation and imitation is a form of culture Japanese macaques - Knowing to stay in the hot spring during winter time - Clean the rice that they eat with water Great tits & milk bottles - The birds pecking at the foil and drink the milk - The birds have very different techniques to access the milk - If they're doing imitating learning, they should have similar way to drink the milk - They took a behavior that they usually get food from the nature and apply it to something else - Not imitation learning Mobbing call (E. Curio) - How do they learn what is dangerous in the environment - Advantageous to learn 1. The two birds can only hear each other, but cannot see each other - Naïve bird ○ Hears call, but sees a honeyeater - Teacher bird ○ M
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