BIEB 166 Lecture 13 (WI13)

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Biol/Ecology, Behavior, & Evol
BIEB 166
James Nieh

Lecture 13 What is communication? 1. Sender signal --> receiver response Multiple species of the cleaner wrasse - Elongated shape - Signal tells the fish that they can come and be cleaned Fly - Warning signal: resembles a bee - Color of the flower: memorable to the pollinators ○ Fly is learning to associate the flower with sugar award - Plant get pollinated, the fly gets nectar Owls and mouse - Mouse moving around scratching the bark - It is not sending a signal to the owl 2. Actors use specially designed signals to modify the behavior of reactors - Selected by natural selection to be advantageous to the sender Snapping turtle's lure - Specially modified signal - Tongue looks like a worm, benefits the snapping turtle - Manipulation is a valid form of communication ○ All communication is manipulation Tungara frogs and bat predators - Frogs are able to produce low and high frequencies ○ Females prefer male calls with high frequencies (and so do the bats) - Males want to reproduce, the females want to find the male that is most fit - Risky acoustic behavior - The sender wants - The receiver wants - The unintended observers of the signal want 3. Sender signals receiver response to mutual advantage, on average (Norm Carlin) - Good for describing cooperative communication - The supernormal cuckoo chicks is not a way of communication ○ Not advantageous to the host 4. Useful to consider evolution of signals and receivers separately - Evolution of signal: acts upon senders - Evolution of information: acts upon receivers - Look at wide variety of phenomenon of communication - Consider both cooperative and manipulative communication and what happens when communication is shaped by unintended receivers - Epiphenomenon: result of interaction of sender and receiver and their goals Frog (continued) - Male frog wants to mate with females - Female frogs want to mate with males with good fitness ○ When the frogs can avoid being eaten by bats even they are in risky conditions - Overall communication system over-rises the senders and the receivers want Ritualization - The process by which a functional behavior pattern or structure is transformed into a communication signal ○ Increasing conspicuousness ○ Increasing stereotypy ○ Increasing separation from its original function Ghost crab 1. Males with big white claws - Standing next to their burrows waving their claws - Build sand cones to attract females (very conspicuous) - Bigger crab, bigger pile of sand 2. Females - Pick the strongest male (biggest claw) - Females see the sand cones that built by the males before seeing the male claws - They would prefer the tallest cone + nicest (most symmetric) 3. Evolution - Males start to build larger sand piles, to get more attention to females (visualizing the signal) - Females tends to mate with stronger and better males (receiving the visual signal sent by the females) - Not sure if supernormally attracted Bower birds 1. Males have very special bower - Original function of the bower: as a nest - Showing its fitness by building the bower ○ Large ○ Symmetric - True quality of the male ○ Survived male ○ Can focus on collecting largely useless objects (rare objects in the environment) ○ Travel great distances ○ Good vision ○ Stealing from other birds (fight) Urination signals - Territorial landmark - Separated from the original function of urination - More stereotyped Ant trail pheromones - Odor trails as ritualization - Depositing the pheromone, sufficient for the ant to follow - The presence of the leade
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