BIEB 166 Lecture 10 (WI13)

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Biol/Ecology, Behavior, & Evol
BIEB 166
James Nieh

Lecture 10 Kinesis - Undirected orientation movements Parameium Kinesis - Animal that eat things like bacteria - Whenever it reaches an area with less bacteria, it moves more rapidly and randomly (always moves randomly) - When it reaches an area with more bacteria, it moves slowly ○ Spend more time with area that has more food Human Body louse - Like to be in hair - They do not have vision - They move around in the environment, and whenever they move into an area that has a lot of hair to grab onto, they tend to stay there for a long time - They rapidly move out of area without hair - Random since they are not directed to anything - Movement is random, but speed changes Taxis - Directed orientation movements with respect to a stimulus Phototaxis Fungus - Spores growing towards the light - Positive phototaxis - For negative phototaxis, the spores would move out of the way of the light Phonotaxis - Orientation towards sound Cricket - Ears in their thorax, and each of the front legs - Females can listen to the sound of the calling male, and orient the location of the calling male - Positive phonotaxis - Tropotaxis Chemotaxis - Towards certain chemical Amoeba - Pseudo-foot ○ Propelling themselves to move in one direction - Moving in the direction of food ○ Tasting with the chemo-receptors - Positive chemotaxis Snake - It is using its tongue to sense the slime trail ○ Get the slug by following the slime trail - Using its tongue in a klinotatic way Anemotaxis - Sensing the wind Menotaxis - Animal maintaining a constant angle to a stimulus - Simplest angle: 0 degree (going directly to the stimulus) - Simplest angle: 0 degree (going directly to the stimulus) Silk moth menotaxis - Female producing sex pheromone - Males are very much attracted to it ○ They can sense and response to the pheromone - They'd die after they mate 1. Male behaviors - Initially searching for odor ○ Flies at 90 degrees to wind (menotaxis) ○ Maximize the chances of finding the molecule ○ Fixed angle - Finds some odor molecules ○ Flies upwind (positive anemotaxis) ○ Responding to the wind, not the odor ○ Also an example of menotaxis - Loses the odor ○ Flies in a random zigzag (kinesis) ○ Randomly searching in the environment to look for another odor molecule - High odor concentration ○ Flies up chemical gradient (positive chemotaxis) ○ Sense significant increase in concentration of the odor - Lots of strategies are used in life to look for different object (maybe both taxis and kinesis) Bombyx mori Klinotaxis - Successive sampling while moving through a gradient - How it is using its sensors (using as one thing or two separate things) Fly maggot - Very poor vision, but there are photoreceptors on the head - Want to stay away from the light ○ If it is exposed, they might be eaten by predators, or dried out - Hide inside the cavities of the barks of trees - Negative phototaxis (moving away from the light) - Using the eyes as a single sensor (not comparing) Tropotaxis - Taking simultaneous samples from pai
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