BIEB 166 Lecture 12 (WI13)

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Department
Biol/Ecology, Behavior, & Evol
Course
BIEB 166
Professor
James Nieh
Semester
Spring

Description
Lecture 12 Referential Communication - Communication that provides information about the external environment in a coded way Warm/hot outside; direction (5miles north) 1. Stimulus class specific - Always refers that same object/condition - Not a general alarm call - Most animals do not have referential communication - Also applicable to communicating about location ○ Direction is specific (5miles north) 2. Context independent - How to test to make sure is referential - Even didn't see the source of danger, still have to respond appropriately - Prove the animal/human actually using the information that is given but not acting on their own because of other stimulus Vervet monkeys - Referential communication - Specific to the item they're trying to communicate ○ Eagle: go to the middle of the tree ○ Snake: go to top of the tree - Context independent ○ The animal doesn't see the snake/eagle but still respond to the signal Honey bees (genus Apis) - Highly social bees (highly cooperative) - Every individuals in the community is the offspring of the queen bee The discovery - Karl von Frisch - Honey bee waggle dance ○ Bees moving in a figurate style shape ○ Body tracing a kind of figurate ○ Other bees are very interested in the behavior, following her very close behind, tracking her as she made the motions - First non-human example of sophisticated referential communication The recruitment system 1. Honey bees recruit to many types of resources - Nectar - Pollen - Water - Good nest sites - Resin collection sites 2. Round dance - At close distances (0-10m) from the food source - Does not communicate food location - Only sends bees on a random search of the area less than 100m from the nest 3. Waggle dance - >100 m from the food source - Giving bees sample of food (odor of flower, know the nectar) - Communicates distance and direction - Continuous transition forms — round to waggle dance - Serving common purpose - The queen bee has information she wants to give, and the other bees have information that they want to get - Not necessarily to have goal driven behavior in the process ○ Process of natural selection have selected honeybees to act such that waggle dancers are providing the location of the food source because this is beneficial to the colony ○ Acted on signal receivers to act as if they are receiving the information in order to find food to benefit the colony Sun's Azimuth - The direction of the sun with respect to north as projected onto a horizontal plane - Birds use it to navigate - Bees are not using the north/south system ○ Everything is with reference of the sun 1. Waggle dance pointing at the food source - Evolutionary beginning ○ The bee is drawing a little map to direct the bees ○ If it is a good food source, she would go to the flower and get the nectar, and give it to the bees - Showing by the direction where to go to find food - Direction coded in the angle of the waggle run - Transpose the angle of the dance ○ If the flower is 30 degrees right to the sun, the dance would be 30 degrees to the right of vertical (azimuthic angle) ○ Dancing with respect to the up position (with respect to gravity) 2. Dancing inside dark nest - Dancer is referring to the sun and therefore needs to know the sun's position ○ Observe how fast the sun is moving ○ Able to remember where the food source is relative to the sun ○ Calculate where the sun would be - This position changes with time and thus the dancer needs an internal clock to correct for the sun's position when: ○ She is performing marathon dance
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