BILD 1 Lecture 10: Cancer

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Biology/Lower Division

51117 Lecture notes (10) Cancer Tuesday, May 16, 2017 3:04 AM Cytokinesis differs for plant and animal cells Vesicles containing cell wall material create a cell plate and then a new cell wall, dividing the daughter cells of plant cells Interphase: Duplicate chromosomes in nucleus Chromosomes consist of two identical copies called sister chromatids Sister chromatids coil into tight helical fibers Prophase Centrosomes move to opposite sides of the cell Spindle forms DNA becomes more compacted Nuclear envelope starts to break up Spindle fibers attach at the centromere Metaphase The spindle causes chromosomes to line up in the center Anaphase Sister chromatids separate and move towards opposite sides of the cell Telophase Chromosomes become less condensed New nuclear envelopes form Cytokinesis Two separate daughter cells created How many chromosomes are present when two sister chromatids are attached? The answer is one chromosome. If those sister chromatids divide, then we have two chromosomes. Karyotypes are taken at metaphase in a cell Cell density, and chemical growth factors affect cell division Factors that control cell division o Presence of essential nutrients o Growth factors, proteins that stimulate division o Presence of other cells causes densitydependent inhibition Cells anchor to dish surface and divide When cells have formed a complete single layer, they stop dividing (densitydependent inhibition) If some cells are scraped away, the remaining cells divide to fill the dish with a single layer and then stop (densitydependent inhibition) The cell cycle clock: cyclins and cyclindependent kinases Two types of regulatory proteins are involved in cell cycle control: cyclins and cyclindependent kinases (Cdks) Cdks activity fluctuates during the cell cycle because it is controlled by cyclins, so named because their concentrations vary with the cell cycle MPF (maturationpromoting factor) is a cyclinCdk complex that triggers a cells passage past the G2 checkpoint into the M phase
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