HILD 30 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Peloponnesian War, Zackie Achmat, Cholera

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Hild 30 Readings Notes
Tomes Making of a Germ Panic
o After the e.coli outbreak in the summer of 1998, people were more aware of germs/diseases
and feared them
Became more prevalent in our media, huge part in health improvement
Used slogans to put on consumer products to sell; maybe as a marketing ploy
o Interest may have stemmed from AIDS epidemic
Delayed response to AIDS, ast disussed at all for ahile
From gay people or drug addicts
o TB had a faster response and people had more panic
Fro iigrats ad otherig
o Some hypothesis for wide range of interest are ridiculous such as third world disease breeders
o But also resulted in promoting better hygiene
o Once deaths started to decline, people worried less and became more lax again
o In present day, germ spread is more due to international travel rather than direct contact
o Communication/media (popular discourse)
o Dealing with change
o Political immigrants, racialization/othering
Hippocrates Airs, Waters, Places
o Promotes constitutive vision of humankind and climate
Relations among nations, natural and human resources, and human health
o Judges places prone to diseases based on weather
Weather affects inhabitants which lead to likely hood of healthiness
Humans and climate influence each other
The Plague of Athens
o On Thucydides account of the Plague that killed nearly a third of the Athenian population in the
summer of 430 and caused greater loss of human life than the rest of the Archidamian War
o Connections to other readings
Outsiders coming into Athens and being cause of disease
Reaction to the change that is happening
Disease always brought by someone else that is from another community
Slack Responses to Plague
o Caused growth of local and state power since it was necessary to organize a plague prevention
(social control)
Restricted individual liberty and caused opposition
o Christian Europe believed that plague originated from God as punishment
Used repentance and prayer to stop epidemic
Miasma bad air of an infected place
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Big factor that surrounded spread of disease
o Every religion viewed an epidemic differently and acted accordingly
Set precedents like plague was punishment for sin and brought by outside community
o Common responses including leaving infected area or being shunned, but many still
disregarded precautions to help loved ones
o Difference between past and present responses are the popular and public ignorance of
medical facts
Intro to The Dacameron
o Some believed to stay sober and isolate themselves to reduce risk of infection while others
drank and divulged into whatever they wanted
o Many just satisfied their appetite, no over or under eating
o Some were so cautious they refused to care for their children and many would leave families
o Since people were left alone, they would die without anyone there
Pullan - Plague and Perceptions of Poor
o About relationship of perceptions of poor written by the perspective of the elite
o Viewed poor as subjects of pity and objects of fear
o Authoritative figures: doctors, clergymen/religious people, administrators/professionals
o Rid of all the homeless people to eliminate disease spread
Act of pleasing God by the state because can cancel sin through an act of charity
o Started to treat the plague as a natural phenomenon as a means to protect the quality of food,
control movement of infected goods, separate sick from healthy, etc
o Great iteret of hoeless people; disriiator
o belief that plague was both punishment from God and a natural phenomenon
only solution is to seek forgiveness and alleviate the poverty inflicted by plague
not an act of war between God and people, but to show wrath and call people back to
good; a call to morally reforming society
o would organize charities during plague ties to leel Gods ager
o poor were viewed in 3 contrasting roles:
bearers
overcrowding
living conditions
source of the disease (incubators)
victims
lack of resources and no options
beneficiaries of plague
piety element
once people left houses, poor could occupy those empty houses
took all the jobs that people left
o rich people would leave cities to avoid plague
o Father Antero saw plague as reducing the population and weaning out the poor
o Moral qualities of place had big contributing factors to plague
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Ex. Deficiencies in diet caused by shortages of salt, doing illegal deals in infected clothing
and bedding, movement of troops
o Lazzaretto
Varlik - New Science and Old Sources
o Discusses the historical and historiographical problems that rendered this epidemiological
experience mostly invisible to previous scholars of plague
o ‘eostruts the epires plague eologies, ith partiular attetio to plagues persistee,
focalization, and transmission
o Studying the Ottoman plague during the 2nd pandemic
Emphasizes the critical importance of focalization
Draws attention to the necessity of adopting more complex models of plague
transmission
Urges the elimination of old models of assumed epidemiological boundaries and
trajectories that have been built on flawed historical constructs
Jones Virgins Soils Revisited
o Genetic weakness hypothesis: old world germs had killed native Americans since they have
never been exposed to it so not immune/genetic resistance
Historians believe this
o Cros didt agree ith geeti hpothesis ad ephasized the eiroetal fators a
have contributed
o “ort of other atie Aerias  saig the had eak iuit, ut “paiards ad
Europeans had universal immunity towards diseases that struck those countries
Europeans capacity to resist certain diseases made them superior
May have been better exposed since domesticated animals were apart of
European agriculture where animal microbes are the start of epidemics
o Other factors may have included lack of exposure as children, detrimental effects of
colonization, and genetic handicaps
o Everyone is unique and different in their immunity
o Virgin soil theory: epidemics in which the populations at risk have had no previous contact with
the diseases that strike them, thus immunologically defenseless
Shifts responsibility of depopulation either onto or away from American Indians
o Virgin soil stories perpetuate powerful narrative patterns by:
Telling a story of purity infiltrated and destroyed by corruption
The narrative of a purifying journey presents American Indian vulnerability as the
product of their prior triumph over adversity
Narrative of virginity
Kelton Cherokee Medicine
o Cherokees had their own methods of practicing medicine before Europeans had arrived
o Practitioners were well respected and hildre had hereditar rights to pratie ediie
Doest ea oe lieage took oer etire trie
Dissatisfied patients would seek other lineages/communities
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