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Making of the Modern World
MMW 13
Edmond Chang

CDDCB-AAACD Outline Lecture Seven—The Ottoman Empire Key Focus This Week: 1) How three empires under Muslim rulers emerged, thrived, and fell into decline? 2) How they managed large communities of non-Muslim subjects in their realm? 3) To what extent were they able to implement religious pluralism? I) Dar Al-Islam --abode of Islam, vast region, --a) The Link Between Trade Networks or World Systems ----i) Moving from western edge to east (show map) west: ghana, mali empires, east: moving to east during the time masa musa travel to mecca, swahii coast, convert to Islam ----ii) Three Emerging Islamic Empires by 1500s Ottomans--conquered middle east and mediterranean Safavid and Mughal empire II) The Rise of Ottomans --a) Humble Beginnings--small, humble turkey tribes, ----i) Buffer state between the Seljuks and Byzantines Seljuks--powerful nomadic group--to the east Byzantines--to the west 13th c.window opportunity: both of the larger empires had been weaken --Seljuks was weaken by mongols --Byzantines was weaken by cruades ----ii) Ottoman Turks under Osman Bey Osman Bey-founder of the ottoman empire, 1.service as mercenary for both sides increased holding, capcaity 2. gain confident to have their own right became an affective fighting force to help expanse the region --b) Ottoman Expansion ----i) Conquest of Constantinople in 1453 by Mehmet II hard to conquest Constantinople picture of Mehmet--sniffing at the flower indicated Constantinople ----ii) Greatest expansion in 1500s under Suleiman the Magnificent (or “Law-giver”) conquered middle-east, egypt, north africa H empire in europe Ottoman had --land power the region of the world --naval power--control the red sea as well as persian gulf, eastern mediterranean formidable land and naval power trade must through Ottoman land III) Ottoman Imperial System --a) Establishing a Centralized Bureaucracy--like in the mongol not only control the land, but high and powerful diversity ----i) Limitations of traditional system based on tribal alliances for vast empire, not effective people had clearly role and rank --b) Sultan’s Civil Service—The Ghulam System ----i) Devshirme—provincial slave levy serve basic need, fill the rank of the bureaucracy Devshirme 1395, boys age from 8 to 18, from Christian families, forced them to convert to Islam be given the top education and physical training that everyone expect to get choose these boys through IQ and physical condition position---power associated with this group: parents finding ways to let their son get in, even Muslim turk found backdoor ----ii) Why Christian “slaves” instead of Muslim freemen? slave stauts imply assault personal properity under loyalty and trust Muslim have regional interest may give into the way ----iii) The Janissary Corps--promising corp (1) Inner Service assaulten represented the gifted mind given training in Kuran literature, arbic, persian, music, math and art --(a) Highest post of Grand Vizier Grand Vizier was picked from inner service Grand Vizier--the most important desicion maker (2) Ou
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