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Lecture 1

MMW 12 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Cursus Honorum, Tyrant, Autocracy


Department
Making of the Modern World
Course Code
MMW 12
Professor
Richard Cohen
Lecture
1

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MMW12%Lecture%Notes%
Carolyn% Kao%
Jan$6$LectureTHE$ROMAN$EMPIRE$UNDER$AUGUSTUS$
l From%Republic%to%Empire%
n Julius%Caesar%(100%BCE44%BCE)%
u Setting%himself%as%the%“king”—potential%tyrant%
u Assassinated%
n Battle%of%Actium%31%BCE%
u Between%Marc%Antony%and%Octavianin%pursuit%of%power%
u Octavian%eventually%won%out%
u Still%the%world%of%republic%(the%public%thing,%citizen%first)%
n Julio-Claudian%Dynasty%
u Augustus%(Octavian),%nephew%of%Caesar%(27%BCE—14%CE)%
u Tiberius%(14%CE37%CE)%
u Caligula%(37%CE41%CE)%
u Claudius%(41%CE54%CE)%
u Nero%(tyrant)%(5468%CE)%
n Transformation%of%the%Roman%Republic%into%a%military%autocracy%
u Autocracy%(auto:%self;%cracy:%rule)—rule%by%one%man%
u Initially%Octavian%made%an%appearance%of%republican%government,%
and%later%took%over%the%throne%
u Possessing%incredible%personal%beauty%
u Octavian%as%an%autocrat,%dictator%and%emperor27%BCE%as%the%
beginning%of%Roman%Empire%
u Laying%the%foundation%of%imperial%system%
l Major%measures%of%Augustus%
n Assuming%to%control%over%other%territories%beyond%merely%Rome%
n Leadership%over%general%armies%
n Relating%his%ruler%ship%to%the%godattaching%the%divine%power%to%the%
politics%(blessed%by%the%gods)%
n Offered%supreme%power%but%declined%by%himself%(Res%Gestae)%
n Possessing%more%authority,%but%no%more%legal/supreme%power%than%
anybody%else%
u Authority=social%position%plus%personal%charisma.% %
l People%worked%for%Augustus%because%they%loved%him%(People%
MMW12%Lecture%Notes%
Carolyn% Kao%
are%willing%to%do%things%simply%because%of%the%hierarchy%or%
relationship)%
u Power=with%the%using%of%force%to%accomplish%something%
n Creating%a%new%political%system%(autocracy)%different%from%old%ideals%
n Legislating%laws%
n Praised%as%the%high%priest%(religious)%and%the%head%of%governor%
(political)%
l Pax%RomanaRoman%Peace,%the%time%of%great%pleasure%
n Especially%for%wealthy,%upper-class%people%
n There%were%wars,%but%people%in%Rome%were%able%to%enjoy%lives%at%home%
n The%Art%of%Love%by%Ovid% %
u Ovid%(43%BCE17%or%18%CE)%
l Describing%the%pursuit%of%pleasure%for%the%wealthy%(men%
chasing%women)%
l His%literacy%career%at%cursus%honorum%“the%course%of%offices”%
l Born%in%wealthy%family,%expected%to%follow%his%father’s%
expectation%(not%to%become%a%poet)%
l Augustus’%reception%of%The%Love%of%Art%
n Marriage%was%less%frequentpeople%chose%not%to%have%children%at%all%
then%
n 18%BCEAugustus%instituted%laws%to%prohibit%adultery%and%encourage%
marriage/procreation%
n 3%BCEpublication%of%The%Love%of%Art%
u Augustus%was%not%happy%with%Ovid%about%that%
u Ovid%represented%himself%in%the%book%as%a%promoter%of%adultery%in%
defiance%of%the%Emperor%
n 8%CE—Ovid%was%exiled%from%Rome%(deprived%of%citizenship)%
u The%Love%of%Art%was%banned%
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