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Lecture 9

MMW 12 Lecture Notes - Lecture 9: Quraysh

Making of the Modern World
Course Code
MMW 12
Richard Cohen

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Unlike Christians, who no longer followed the law of Moses as the society changes
and sought social reform, Muslims preserved and transformed social value by creating
a new religion.
l Idea of one god (monotheism)—new idea for Arabian (Allah the only god)
n Allah revived traditional value as a new god
l Idea of umma—community
n There’s only one umma, worshipping one Allah
n Shahada: “There’s no god but God, Muhammad is the messenger of God.
Muhammad’s Early Life
l 570 born at Mecca
n Raised by his uncle Abu Talib (Father-in-law)
l 595 married
n 1st wife Khadija (ideal wife, older that Muhammad)
n Ali—Muhammad’s son-in-law
l 610 Night of Power and Excellence
n On Mountain Hira
n Divine voice speaking to him (Gabriel the angle), sending message (Quran)
to the messenger (Muhammad)
n The moment when Muhammad received revelation
n “Recite”—Quran: not chronologically ordered, but in terms of leaf.
n For Muslim, Jesus is the Prophet, not the Son of God. Muhammad is not the
Son of God, either, but a perfect man and messenger.
n From The Life of Muhammad—
Two men in white raiment came to me with a gold basin full of snow (two
men: angels)
Image of inner purification—how he became the prophet and why he
deserved and was qualified.
l 613 Islam became more public in ministry
n Quran 74:1-29 “Dolorous (sad) for the unbelievers.” All wealth, happiness,
economic prosperity in life were all created by Allah.
n Threats of suffering to those who don’t believe in Allah.
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l 622 year one of Muslim calendar: Hijra
n People at Mecca rejected Muhammad for they were polytheism—life blood
of Mecca
n Muhammad was protected by his uncle
n While more people became Muslim, those who have totally submitted
themselves to the law of Allah
n Muhammad wanted dispute to be resolved—as a mediator
n Quran 22:39-40 (Given the right to wage war)
u Permission given
u God gave support for Muhammad to leave
u Fight against injustice—Muslims were persecuted minority
u God supports those who support him
u God is powerful. Almighty.
l 624 Battle at Badr
n Those who died for Islam went to Paradise.
n Military success and the foundation of Islam among the Arabs
l 630 Return to Mecca
n Clan Quraysh and Muhammad went to Ka’ba—the pagan shrine
n Muhammad had forced and subdued his clan, which accepted him as a
leader and general
n Muhammad got rid of all other gods and rededicated himself to Allah alone
l 632 Death
n Unification of most clans of Arabia
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