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Lecture 21

MMW 12 Lecture Notes - Lecture 21: Six Dynasties, Exoticism, Four Books And Five Classics


Department
Making of the Modern World
Course Code
MMW 12
Professor
Richard Cohen
Lecture
21

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MMW12%Lecture%Notes%
Carolyn% Kao%
Mar$2$Lecture—Chinese$Court$Life:$Beauty$and$Exoticism$
l Combination%And%Utilization%of%Diverse%Cultural%Traditions%Was%The%
Hallmark%of%the%Tang%
n Tang%Ren%Jie% :%The%street%of%the%Tang%people%(China%Town)%
n History%of%Texturedtexts%have%textures;%woven%through%human%labors;%
some%stand%over%(revealed)%and%some%stand%under%(hidden)%
n The%identification%of%Chinese%culture%is%associated%with%Confucianism%
u However,%starting%from%Six%Dynasties%Period,%decline%of%unified%
China%
l Confucianism%not%as%dominant%(Dark%Age)%
l Buddhism$started$to$be$prominent$
n Ideas%of%incarnation%and%karma%
l Economy%largely%depended%on%international%trade%
n Mixture%of%cultures%in%Tang%
u Embracing$all$diversity$(non-native%Chinese)%%
u Inter-marriage% %
u Chinese%tradition%+%central%Asia%+…%
u Not%pursuing%a%single%unified%cultural/ethnical%purity%
u Also%seen%in%warfare%
l Horsemanship—imported%from%Central%Asia%
l Iron%weapons%(new%technology)%developed%
l Armed%infantryman%emerged%
l Tang%owned%the%most%powerful%army%on%the%planet%then.%It%
was%during%the%expansion%of%Islam%(Umayyad%and%Abbasid).%
l The%Tang%(618-907%CE)%
n Descended%from%Sui%Dynasty—the%first%strong%centralized%government%
after%Han%
u Wen%Di% %The%Founder%of%Sui%
l Increase%of%popularity%
l Lowering%taxes%
u Yang%Di% %
l Gaining%throne%by%killing%Wen%Di%(Father)%
MMW12%Lecture%Notes%
Carolyn% Kao%
l Ambitious,%later%assassinated% %
n Founding%of%Tang—ruled%by%one%emperor%
u FounderLi%Yuan% % The%First%Emperor%of%Tang;%Duke%of%Tang%
l Emperor%since%year%623%
u 2nd%Emperor%Li%Shih%Min%/%Taizong% %/% %
l Ruling%from%year%627%to%649%
l Centralized%authority%with%sharing%of%power%(page%112)%
n Not%ruled%by%the%emperor%alone%
n enfeoff:%giving%lands%to%somebody%else.%In%order%to%protect,%
to%defend,%and%to%guard%the%outlying%prefectures%
l Idea%of%empire—how%does%one%man%rule%over%a%large%territory%
l The%“Man”%described%by%the%Curly-bearded%Man% %
n (Page%318)%“This%is%the%true%Son%of%Heaven.”% %
n (Page%321)%“There%is%nothing%here%of%mere%chance.”—The%
idea%of%fate/karma%from%India.%The%destiny%is%determined%
already.% %
n (Page%321-22)%the%“One%Man”Taizong.%Don’t%try%to%step%
beyond%himthe%idea%of%Confucianism%(obedience)%
n The%Idea%of%One%Emperor%in%comparison%to%The%Umayyad%in%Islam%
u Early:%the%idea%of%equality%in%umma—everyone%is%equal%to%Allah%
u Caliphate—“privileged”%in%Islam%above%all%other%Muslims%and%
non-Muslims%
u Basis%of%power:%family%
l Examination%System%
n Started%to%prosper%in%Tanga%solution%to%rule%over%a%large%territory%
n Scholar/gentry%
n One%should%be%trained%to%study%Confucius%texts%in%order%to%enter%the%
ruling%bureaucracy%(to%be%obedient%to%the%emperor)%
n Five%Classics:%Book%of%Poetry,%Document/Changes/Rites%and%Spring%and%
Autumn%Annals% %%%%%
n Role%of%Men%
u To%become%a%bureaucrat%to%gain%power%and%enhance%social%position%
u Must%be%trained%with%Confucian%classics%(very%restricted)%
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