PHIL 12 Lecture 2: Introduction to Argument

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University of California - San Diego
Kerry Mc Kenzie

PHIL 12 – Lecture 2 – Introduction to Argument READ INTRODUCTION, LOOK UP PODCAST.UCSD.EDU 1:10 stardust Why Think About Scientific Reasoning?  Take scientifically justified belief to be paradigm of rational/reasonable belief o Understanding what reasoning goes on in science tells something deep about culture  Science says it’s the case, so it is o Ex: giving up smoking because it will lead to lung cancer  Science critical for individual decision-making o Think about why we trust certain claims and not others as grounds for action  Science is amazing o Want to understand how scientists managed to change the world We Take Scientific Belief to be the Paradigm of Rational/Reasonable Belief  What makes the deliverances of science rational/reasonable?  What makes any belief reasonable? o When it is held for good reasons  Held on account of evidence that supports its truthfulness  Can provide an argument about why the claim should be believed Can’t All Of Our Beliefs Be Said to Be Reasonable in This Way?  No  Many beliefs not held for good reasons, or any reasons at all  We are more likely to believe things if: o We’ve been told  Ex: fake news o We’ve been told over and over again  Ex: Guinness is good for you  Keep saying something over and over again, and it will become the truth o Wishful thinking  If a person wants a claim to be true, they are more likely to believe that it is true o Gut feeling o Personal identity  Things about us that make us more likely to believe something  Think of yourself a certain way, and have beliefs that confirm the way that you want to be/see yourself  Causes for how we come to believe that p may not be reasons for us to believ
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