PHIL 12 Lecture 13: Food Science

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Kerry Mc Kenzie

PHIL 12 Lecture 13 Food Science 1,000 word science article about something that we talked about. What would be goodquality journalism of some issue connected with the course? Definition of good science journalism depends on your definition of it Last Time: Argument from Analogy Assume that two things are similar in some respects, then it is justified to say that they are similar in another respect Things of type X have features F, G, H Things of type Y have features F, G, H, and Z Things of type X have feature Z as well Important in science and everyday life Underlies animal testing To get to trial o RTC o Have to establish that the study participants are not going to be harmed before it goes to trial Instead of trials o Ex: Class A, Class B, class C drugs during pregnancy Class A: has been tested in pregnant women Class C: animal subject trials, but no studies in human beings; usually shown in animals that it harms the baby Fallacy of False Analogy: two things cannot be similar because of one underlying factor More on Animal Testing Thalidomide o Tested and marketed as an extremely safe sedative o Also effective as antinausea medication, so a lot of pregnant women took the drug o Birth to children with severe birth defects o Presented both by antianimal testing lobby and by proanimal testing lobby Animal testing must be stopped vs. this is a mistake we must learn from in order to effectively complete trials, animal testing is a highly reliable method for inferring safety of drugs on human subjects o Why were none of the animals tested on pregnant? Lab animals at the time were almost always male This still goes on today o 80 of cardiovascular science papers disclosed the sex of the animals, and 71.6 of them used males only, even though women have more fatal strokes than men o Diagnoses for anxiety and depression more than twice as as common in women than in men, but fewer than 45 of animal studies use females o In neuroscience, ratio is 5.5:1
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