PSYC 101 Lecture 2: Lecture 2 Notes
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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 101
Professor
Adena Schachner
Semester
Spring

Description
PSYC101 Lecture 2 Notes 4/11/17 - First developmental study? Ancient Egypt (630 BCE) o Pharaoh Psalmtik II: I wonder how language came to be?  Believed Phrygian (his language) was the original language, but how to test?  Experiment: found a shepherd and told him to raise children in the absence of any linguistic input. Thought that children would spontaneously start to speak Phrygian anyway. Shepherd reported that the children spontaneously spoke Phrygian, so concluded it was the innate original language  Demand effects: when the experimenters know what they want to happen, it skews the experiment in their favor - Modern versions of developmental studies o Controlled-rearing studies (deprivation studies): is a part of our experience necessary for certain development?  Take away certain experience to see if development changes  Held and Hein 1963 experiment on animals: how does depth perception develop? What experience is needed?  Create visual cliff, where there is glass over a drop  If they develop depth perception, not going to walk over cliff. If they don’t develop depth perception, walk off cliff because don’t recognize the depth  Do we need vision to develop depth perception? YES  Do we need the ability to move on our own? YES, need to experience their own movement and to see what happens to get depth perception (kitten carousel)  Experiments on children, in extreme deprivation. Very unethical, but still occurs  Child called Genie: victim of severe neglect; didn’t hear language in the first 13 years of her life. Found that there are 2 different parts of language: verbal labeling and rules/grammar. Genie could learn verbal labeling well, but couldn’t grasps the rules/grammar  Study of feral/wild children: children growing up with animals instead of humans; address ancient questions about our nature - True beginning of the field of developmental psychology: Philosophers o Greeks argue about development (340 BCE)  Aristotle: knowledge comes entirely from experience, child-rearing should adjust to needs of the child  Plato: knowledge is innate (nativist), strict discipline is important for everyone  Familiar themes: nature and nurture, interested in the proper raising of children o Enlightenment period  John Locke (1632-1704): all the ideas in the mind come from experiences in the world. The mind is a blank state (tabula rasa). Nurture over nature o The start of empirical research: 1800s-1900s  Through social reform movements (child labor laws)  Through work of Charles Darwin (1809-1882)  Evolution by natural selection important to understanding of development  Drew parallels between human prenatal growth and other animals  Wrote down observations as he watched children systematically and hypothesized reasons for the behavior observed o Emerging theories of development  Sigmund Freud (1856-1939)  Behavior motivated by unconscious, instinctual drives  Human behavior is like an iceberg, where you can only see the tip of the iceberg  The type of drive changes over development (universal developmental stages)  Psychosexual drives change within each stage  Good things about Freud  Pointed out the mystery of infantile amnesia (don’t remember things from infancy), which is an interesting phenomenon  Emphasized early experience  We have an unconscious mind: implicit bias  Bad things about Freud  Overemphasis on sexuality  Little or no evidence  Claims too vague to test  Reaction to Freud: behaviorist theories (1920s-60s): Skinner and Watson  Disagreed with Freud, because couldn’t test theories. Only talk about observable things (stimulus and response), not emotions or thoughts  The most scientific
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