PSYC 101 Lecture 11: Lecture 11 Notes

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PSYC 101
Adena Schachner

PSYC101 Lecture 11 Notes 51617 Nature and nurture o Everything about you is jointly caused by the genetic material you inherited and the environments you have experienced from conception to now o How much does each one matter? Depends on the philosophers views John Watson: nature has no role at all Folk Wisdom: Nature matters o Selective breeding: farmers who raise livestock recognize that breeding matters for animal tendencies o Extraordinary cosmetic and psychological changes, like from different dog breeds Different personality traits, like aggressiveness or willingness to be around people o Experiment: took wild foxes and selectively bred those that were friendly to people, and overtime, got friendlier and physically became different Folk Wisdom: environment matters o Diet, type of training, neglect, etc. Behavioral Genetics: explains how and why people behave differently from one another Key terms o Genotype: genetic material you inherit o Environment: every aspect of your surroundings, including prenatal environment o Phenotype: what you look likeare like The expression of your genotype in your environment The big questions o In what ways do genes and environment interact? o How much does each factor contribute to making people different? o How can we pull apart the influence of genes from environment? Interactions of genes and the environment o Classic experiment: took 7 different plant clippings, 3 of each clipping (which are identical) and compared them in different environments. At different elevations, different plants grew well based on the environment Many phenotypes can result from each genotype depending on the environment o Human example: warrior gene, or MAOA gene was believed to inhibit brain mechanism associated with aggression. However, aggressive behavior depends on how much maltreatment a child had in childhood. The more severe maltreatment, the more aggressive behavior. Those with high MAOA were better off that those with low MAOA, but it depends on the interactions between the gene and maltreatment How much does each factor contribute to making people different? o Can study families to get answer o Are people who are more closely related genetically also more similar in their traits and abilities? o Are people who share the same environment more similar in their traits and abilities? o Types of environmental influences
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