PSYC 181 Lecture Notes - Lecture 11: Coca, Vin Mariani, Sodium Bicarbonate

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7 Feb 2017
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PSYC181 Lecture 11 Notes
2/7/17
- Cocaine: Source and history
o Naturally-occurring alkaloid in leaves of shrub Erythroxylon coca
o First reported use by Europeans: 1499
o Active agent extracted in 1859 by Niemann
o Widely used i late ’s, early ’s
o Local anesthetic effects: 1884 procaine (1905)
- Opium was unreliable; cocaine found with local anesthetic effects, so replaced opium
o Cocaine is a stimulant; great for surgery because stimulants stop blood flow, so stop
bleeding during surgery
o Cocaine replaced by other drugs: procaine, etc.
Similar effects, but not a stimulant
- Cocaine history of use
o Used in coca cola
o Vin mariani
o Cocarettes: cigarettes with cocaine in them
- What America spends on drugs
o Mostly cocaine and heroin
o Marijuaa is ig, ut do’t profit a lot from it
- Forms of Cocaine
o Raw leaves
Chew
Alkaloid content low (0.6-1.8%)
Not stable
o Coca paste
Initial extraction
Smoked
Around 80% cocaine
Not stable unless turns into a salt
o Cocaine HCl
Purified and converted to HCl salt
Crystalline form, water soluble
Pure if not diluted
Snorted or IV
o Cocaine free base
Extracted (volatile solvents)
Smoked
o Crack (called crack because it crackles when you burn it)
Free base made with baking soda and ammonia, not cheaper
- Effects of cocaine
o Very similar to amphetamine (generalize in drug discrimination), but some major
differences:
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