HIST103 Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Indus River, Indus Valley Civilisation, List Of Nature Deities

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8 Feb 2017
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Lecture 3
Early Civilization in South Asia
Early Civilization in South Asia
I. The Harappan Civilization (2500-1500 BCE)
a. Indus River Valley
i. Practiced water control/irrigation
1. Best plumbing systems
ii. Produced pottery, cultivated cotton for fabric
iii. Water associated w/ purification
iv. Supta Buddhist monument
v. Centralized states to be able to build and plan this way
1. Priest king statue confirmation of centralization
vi. Beast of Burden = Oxen
vii. Dancing girl statue = entertainment
viii. Stone seals
1. No one can read
2. Used as seals for shipment
3. Nature deity stone = early representation of Shiva
ix. Decline lack of fertility
II. The Indo- Europeans (1500 500 BCE)
a. Early Vedic society and economy
i. Language = Sanskrit
1. Referred to themselves as Arya (noble) and local Dasa (enemy)
ii. Iron weapons, horse chariots
iii. Agriculture as they settled
iv. Created kingdoms and taught among themselves
b. Religion and Social Classification
i. Priests develop alphabet writing system to record myths
ii. Organized under Rajas
1. Patriarchal and patrilineal
2. Women excluded
iii. Worshipped Devas
1. Indra: King of Heaven
2. Propitiation making offerings to deity/spirit (burned animals)
a. Believed deity would benefit them
3. Drank Soma for euphoric feelings
iv. System of Varna (color)
1. People plaed ito groups ad a’t i
2. Brahmin (priests), Kshatriya (warriors), Vaisyas
(merchants/landowners), Sudras (slaves/servants), untouchables
a. First 3 considered twice born
b. Sacred thread ritual
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