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Lecture 5

HIST206 Lecture Notes - Lecture 5: American Indian Boarding Schools, Wounded Knee Massacre, EndangermentPremium

5 pages27 viewsSpring 2017

Department
History
Course Code
HIST206
Professor
Kreitzer
Lecture
5

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Cultural Encounters
Thursday, February 23, 2017
3:21 PM
Indian Removal, 1830s
Indian Wars, 1862-1890
Reservation System
Americanization
8 New States join the Union --> but area was inhabited by Native American Tribes
Forced to change lifestyle and culture due to development of Trans-Mississippi West
Early Encounters
Tribes had different languages, customs, beliefs
Plains Indians
The Plains Tribes: The Sioux, Cheyenne, Comanche
o Used horse and buffalo
Horses allowed native Americans to be a lot more mobile --> hunt more quickly, travel
quicker, carry large amounts of goods, etc.
Buffalos: used horns and other parts to make teepees, knives, tools, buckets/pots
o Teepees- tents again allowed them to be mobile
War like: fought over territory, buffalo herds, as well as other disagreements with groups on the
plains
Andrew Jackson, Lithograph 1835
Using ideas about race to justify their control and domination of other groups of people --> time of
Imperialism
In photo all Native Americans are all very small; Jackson large
o Shows us that Native Americans were not on the same level; not as significant; child-like
(paternalism --> like in the South relations between masters and planters); lower
itelligee (did’t have the ability to make decisions for themselves --> it is the duty of the
government {like a father} to protect them)
Cherokee Nation, 1830s
1830s: violence
Northwest Georgia
Not completed separated from American culture (they could read, write, speak English, mostly
farmers)
o Living very similarly to farmers
o Some even owned slaves --> traditional plantation agriculture
Increased white settlers coming into contact with tribal lands owned by Cherokees
o White settlers wanted land for their farms
o Also rumors of gold and precious metals in Cherokee Land (incentive for gold)
Indian Removal Act, 1830
Federal law that authorized the removal of Eastern tribes
o Relocated to areas West of the Mississippi River
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Thought to be unsuitable for farming
Goeret did’t thik this lad as profitale
Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 1831
Supreme Court ruled that Cherokee people weren't American citizens, and because of this they
did not have the right to property and protection granted under the Constitution
Court claimed Cherokees were a nation within the U.S.
o Domestic Dependent Nation
o Therefore federal government had right to remove Cherokees from Georgia; and were
relocated forcefully to Oklahoma over a 5 month period
Trail of Tears, 1838
October - March (trip during Winter)
o Cold, snow, rain --> during winter
o Many didn't have shoes, blankets --> vastly undersupplied
o Many died because of Disease, sickness, old age
Federal Troops abused them along the way: use of force
Trail of Tears because of hardships for Cherokee
o Around 4,000 perished along trail
This was only a short fix for the federal government
Tensions West of the Mississippi, 1860s
Homestead Act
Railroad
o Development in West that Native Americans were given by the government
o Tensions and fighting broke out between White settlers and Native Americans
Government began taking back territory given to Native Americans to support
industrialization in the West
Sand Creek Massacre of Cheyenne Indians, 1864
White settlers had interest for land in Colorado that was the Cheyenne's land
o Said to be gold there
U.S. soldiers attacked Cheyenne --> killed men, women, and children of tribe; some were scalped
U.S. government supported military attack --> brutality attracted national attention and criticism
o People began talking about U.S. relations with Native Americans
o Congressional Hearings
Indian Peace Commission, 1867
Tribe leaders met with government officials to try to find a non-violent solution so that both
groups could continue to live within trans-Mississippi West
o Came up with Reservation Systems
Indian tribes given land through system and it would be theirs for eternity so that they
could raise families in their own traditional ways
South Dakota, Oklahoma, and Arizona --> some of the first reservations created
here
Also promised clothing, food, farming implements by federal government so that they
could start a new life
Native Americans with hope to preserve way of live and preventing warfare
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