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Lecture 5

HIST206 Lecture 5: Cultural Encounters

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Cultural Encounters Thursday, February 23, 2017 3:21 PM Indian Removal, 1830s Indian Wars, 1862-1890 Reservation System Americanization 8 New States join the Union --> but area was inhabited by Native American Tribes • Forced to change lifestyle and culture due to development of Trans-Mississippi West Early Encounters • Tribes had different languages, customs, beliefs Plains Indians • The Plains Tribes: The Sioux, Cheyenne, Comanche o Used horse and buffalo • Horses allowed native Americans to be a lot more mobile --> hunt more quickly, travel quicker, carry large amounts of goods, etc. • Buffalos: used horns and other parts to make teepees, knives, tools, buckets/pots o Teepees- tents again allowed them to be mobile • War like: fought over territory, buffalo herds, as well as other disagreements with groups on the plains Andrew Jackson, Lithograph 1835 • Using ideas about race to justify their control and domination of other groups of people --> time of Imperialism • In photo all Native Americans are all very small; Jackson large o Shows us that Native Americans were not on the same level; not as significant; child-like (paternalism --> like in the South relations between masters and planters); lower intelligence (didn’t have the ability to make decisions for themselves --> it is the duty of the government {like a father} to protect them) Cherokee Nation, 1830s • 1830s: violence • Northwest Georgia • Not completed separated from American culture (they could read, write, speak English, mostly farmers) o Living very similarly to farmers o Some even owned slaves --> traditional plantation agriculture • Increased white settlers coming into contact with tribal lands owned by Cherokees o White settlers wanted land for their farms o Also rumors of gold and precious metals in Cherokee Land (incentive for gold) Indian Removal Act, 1830 • Federal law that authorized the removal of Eastern tribes o Relocated to areas West of the Mississippi River • Thought to be unsuitable for farming • Government didn’t think this land was profitable Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, 1831 • Supreme Court ruled that Cherokee people weren't American citizens, and because of this they did not have the right to property and protection granted under the Constitution • Court claimed Cherokees were a nation within the U.S. o Domestic Dependent Nation o Therefore federal government had right to remove Cherokees from Georgia; and were relocated forcefully to Oklahoma over a 5 month period Trail of Tears, 1838 • October - March (trip during Winter) o Cold, snow, rain --> during winter o Many didn't have shoes, blankets --> vastly undersupplied o Many died because of Disease, sickness, old age • Federal Troops abused them along the way: use of force • Trail of Tears because of hardships for Cherokee o Around 4,000 perished along trail • This was only a short fix for the federal government Tensions West of the Mississippi, 1860s • Homestead Act • Railroad o Development in West that Native Americans were given by the government o Tensions and fighting broke out between White settlers and Native Americans • Government began taking back territory given to Native Americans to support industrialization in the West Sand Creek Massacre of Cheyenne Indians, 1864 • White settlers had interest for land in Colorado that was the Cheyenne's land o Said to be gold there • U.S. soldiers attacked Cheyenne --> killed men, women, and children of tribe; some were scalped • U.S. government supported military attack --> brutality attracted national attention and criticism o People began talking about U.S. relations with Native Americans o Congressional Hearings Indian Peace Commission, 1867 • Tribe leaders met with government officials to try to find a non-violent solution so that both groups could continue to live within trans-Mississippi West o Came up with Reservation Systems • Indian tribes given land through system and it would be theirs for eternity so that they could raise families in their own traditional ways ▪ South Dakota, Oklahoma, and Arizona --> some of the first reservations created here • Also promised clothing, food, farming implements by federal government so that they could start a new life ▪ Native Americans with hope to preserve way of live and preventing warfare • Peace commission failed --> both sides antagonized o White settlers continued to encroach on land and ignored treaties created amongst peace commission o Also some Native Americans did not want t olive on constrained amount of property --> continued to lead attacks on White Settlers Indian Wars • White settlers wanted to eliminate Native Americans; not willing to
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