HDFS202 Lecture 4: HDFS202 Exam 2 Notes

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University of Delaware
Human Development and Family Studies
Bahira Sherif Trask

HDFS202 3/14/16 Gender Issues • Gender still matters: in the workforce, and military Gender Quiz • Women are the weaker sex, biologically speaking: False • Boys are more group-centered, active and aggressive than girls: True • Women are more emotional than men: False • Women suffer from more depression: True • Men smile more than women: True • Women are more likely to disclose personal information: True • Women and men don’t care whether a baby is a boy or a girl “as long as it is healthy”: True but not in China • Women feel confident about their finances: False • A heart attack is more fatal for men than for women: False, men know the symptoms but women don’t The Issue of Gender • Our culture organizes by gender o Language “mother earth” o Humanity “man” o Colors - toys – feelings o When we meet people we instinctually place then in the male/female category Changes in US Women’s Lives • Able to vote now • Can run or political office • Many more are working and having careers • Sexual harassment is against the law (1976) • Marital rape against the law in most states • Abortion Terms to know: 1. Sex: refers to the biological/physical attributes with which we are born: anatomical, hormonal, chromosomes 2. Gender: refers to the learned roles, attitudes and behaviors that characterize people of one sex or the other 3. Sex influences people’s behaviors, but it does not determine how they think, feel, and act. People learn to be feminine or masculine through their gender, a more complex concept than sex Gender Roles • Characteristics, attitudes feelings and behaviors associated OR expected of males and females • Change over time and place: 40% of women are primary bread winners now • Gender Identity refers to one’s perception of themselves as either masculine or feminine • Historically, universal division of labor by sex • Socialization to gender roles begins at birth • Learned behavior powerful determinant of gender roles – but NOT for everyone • Peoples gender identity becomes part of their self-concept, but people differ in the extent to which a gender identity is important to them HDFS202 3/16/16 *The paper: • -Should have our opinion. • -It is a personal paper. • -Has to be turned in through Sakai. • -Not required that you use the textbook, you can use an article. • -Can use APA or MLA • -Needs a reference page Gender Stereotypes • For the most part, U.S. Society still has fairly rigid gender roles and widespread gender stereotypes, expectations about how people will look, act, think, and feel based on their sex • People tend to associate stereotypically female characteristics with weakness and stereotypically male characteristics with strength Can Sex Be Assigned • Intersexual (called hermaphrodites in the past), are people born with both male and female sex organs (internal and/or external) • One in about 2000 children born So Are We All the Same? • Continuing debates around the issue of the relative importance of nature vs. nurture • Nature Side: Biology and Gender are linked • Most prominent argument for biology comes originally from Sigmund Freud- but it discounted today • Freud claimed that anatomy is destiny- today we know that this is not the case Nurture Side: Biology and Gender are linked • Arguments favoring “Nature” or biological differences between men and women come from the following sources: Developmental and health differences • Effects of sex hormones which are chemical substances secreted into the bloodstream (androgen) • Sex differences in the brain • Unsuccessful sex reassignment • Nature Side: Biology and Gender are linked • Biosocial influences • Variation between individuals explained through socialization • Aggressiveness- can be controlled through external controls • Evolution as explanation? • Women as nurturers • Men as aggressive and territorial • Nurture Side: Socialization and Gender are linked • Arguments favoring the “Nurture” side of the debate suggesting that culture shapes human behavior come from • Symbolic interactionists: importance of roles is shaping behavior- look at colonial America as example • Cross cultural variation in gender roles • Margaret Mead's study in New Guinea • Cross cultural variations in male violence 3/18/16 Nurture Side: Socialization and Gender are linked • Way we behave is due more to social expectations than biology • Concept of “greater” expressivity of women? • Some evidence that baby boys are more emotional • History of US gender roles • Most common now to believe that behavior has both a biological and social component The Issue of Gender In U.S: • Men are thought to have instrumental character- Men like to do things, they like activity, more task oriented • Women are thought to have expressive character traits- more caring about others, more sensitive How Do We Learn Gender? Socialization: the process of acquiring the physical and social skills to become a member of society • We only talk about children/wrong • Life span concept • Socialization is dynamic and goes both ways o Basic functions of the family in all societies is nurturing socialization o Language acquisition also teaches norms Parental Influences • Children learn through identification with parents • Modeling of behavior • Early dependency How Do We Learn Gender? • Parents HDFS202 3/21/16 Gender and Sexuality in the U.S. Society Where do we learn gender? • Children learn gender in first year of life • Research indicates that children’s preferences for toys develops separately from parental influence • Media o Books – until the 1960s more about boys o TV and software is more aggressive behaviors ▪ Girls- portrayed more sexually ▪ Contemporary female pop artists • Peer groups: o 2-3 – children sort into same sex groups ▪ Boys – competitive dominance oriented interaction style? • Carried into adulthood ▪ Girls – agreement and support, ask questions • Expressed later on through interactions ▪ Is there an argument for same sex schools o Later Peer groups ▪ Sense of self developed through activities ▪ Play • Boys until recently more involved in more organized and competitive teams • Title 7 changed all that • Co-ed teams new approach ▪ Research – boys have more innate predispositions Media Influences • Stereotypical representations • US average – TV is on for 7 hours per day o More men on TV o Women younger • Leading to new issues of body image/ attractiveness among both men and women (one-half of 9 year old girls have dieted) School Influences • Teachers encourage certain behaviors • Teachers have different beliefs about competencies • Title IX (1972) has made dramatic changes: o Provides opportunities for girls and women to participate in athletics o Provides sex discrimination and any educational program that receives federal money Benefits and Costs • Exchange theory • Benefits: o Traditional gender roles promote stability, continuity, predictability • Costs: o May not be able to live up to the ideal o Loneliness • Gender roles persist: o Based often on religion o Because they are profitable for business Problems with Gender Stereotypes • Gender stereotypes can distort individual personalities • Place limitations on relationships that people are capable of forming or on career or personal achievements • Traditionally – men as initiators, women as followers; women as givers, men as receivers • Advantages of mixing of roles Rising Concern about boys development • 67% boys in special education classes • More likely than girls to suffer from attention deficit disorder • Lag behind girls in reading scores • More disciplinary problems in school • More likely to be perpetrators and victims of crime Issue of Sexuality • Kinsey: 1948 and 1953; revolutionary study for that time – had been taboo/became highly controversial Findings • Frequency of coitus decreases with age • Early in marriage men are more interested in sex than their wives • Later – women are more interested in sex than their husbands • Individuals participate in a wide spectrum of sexual behaviors Trends in Contemporary Sexual Behavior • 1970s – birth control pill; women in labor force; legalization of abortion • 1980s – AIDS – decrease in sexual activity o Americans have few sex partners o 17% of men and 3 % of women have had sex with more than 21 partners ( highest number 1,016 man/ 1,009 women) • 1990s – 2010 o More monogamous than in the past o 2-4 partners o Do men over report and women under report? HDFS202 4/4/16 Gender, Intimacy, Love, and Sexuality • Modern Love? (how do people meet these days)- online dating • Looking for a mate can be compared to shopping for goods in a market • Generally, the most important factor in judging someone at the first meeting is how he or she looks What is Intimacy? • Humans are social animals – we are relational – need for affection • Personal relationships – intimacy o Reciprocal trust o Emotional closeness o Comfortable self-disclosure Love in Ancient Times • Passionate love “dangerous illness” • Pulled children out of their families • Made adults act as fools • Advocated for friendship and altruistic love What is Love? • Lust, sex, libido • Eros – relationship that moves us closer • Friendship • Caring and devotion to welfare of others Romantic love, sex and marriage • Prior to the 20 century – separation between romantic love and sex and marriage • Sexual relations that were too passionate were thought to be immoral and to compete with a person’s worship of God • Sensual pleasures were to be found outside of marriage th 20 Century: Romantic Love & Sexual Gratification • By 1920s women starting to display their sexual nature publicly • Increase in writings on sex New Concepts about Love • Emerging middle class rejected idea that love was to be found outside of marriage • Love now thought to occur before not after marriage • Being in love helps your health Love and Sex • Is there a relationship o Freud – they come together o Currently thinking split • Maslow’ theory of lo
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