Study Guide for Exam 3:
Fertility- born/ mortality- death; fertility patterns- societies with high fertility rates are
because of the high mortality rate. They are having extra kids as a safety net because the
kids die more easily. In western countries not as many children are being born.
Socialization of children; changing conceptions of children and childhood;- children we used to
help out on the farm. They were seen as extra workers and they were seen as adults at an
early age. Nowadays they get to have a playful childhood and child labor is against the law.
Colonial times they believed that children were born with sin and needed strict punishment
to become pure. While nowadays we see them as pure. Differences on how children spend
their free time, such as playing and learning extracurriculars nowadays but it use to be to
Transition to parenthood- seen as a significant life experience. In US you are not seen as a
family until you have children. Martial adjustments. Relocation of time/space. New
relationships with family/friends. How to balance money. Losing personal time. No clear
guidelines on how to raise a child. Martial satisfaction decreases until child is about 3.
Social construction of motherhood- children require constant care and attention from
biological mother. / fatherhood- kinship connection. Social connection. Breadwinners: how
these concepts have changed over time- woman’s rights, women entering the workforce. Need
for expressivity and nurturance. Stay at home dads. Dads take more care of children. More
women attending universities. Most jobs are gender neutral. Sexual scripts.
Work and family issues including breadwinner fathers- ; traditional arrangements; work-family
stress; working mothers-
Gender role convergence- increasing similarity in how men and women live and what they
want from their lives.
Maternal gate-keeping- custody, mothers keeping fathers out of children’s life. not allowed to
visit and keeping school records away. ; amount of time spent by working parents today on kids
vs. in past- nowadays we spend more time with our children. We don’t let our kids go off and
play by themselves. In the past the kids could go out and roam the streets without
supervision. More of an emphasis for parents to be involved in play.
Feminization of poverty-places with high fertility also have high poverty levels. – more and
more women becoming poor-
Poverty line: minimum govt thinks someone can live on- $24,250; income inequalities in the West;
-more inequality in US than any other western industrialized country. Absolute poverty- a
figure you have to be at. Relative poverty- in relation to those