LING101 Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Animal Language, Arbitrariness, Animal Communication

36 views5 pages

For unlimited access to Class Notes, a Class+ subscription is required.

Introduction to Linguistics
Linguistics: the scientific study of language
The goal of linguistics is to describe and ultimately explain human languages and
the language faculty
Linguistics is not the study of foreign languages
Linguistics is not concerned with prescribing or proscribing language use
Linguistic Questions:
How do children acquire language?
What makes languages alike or different?
What do all languages have in common?
What is possible or not possible in human language?
Linguistic Observations We Want to Explain:
Despite appearances, languages are surprisingly similar
All living languages are constantly changing
Human infants acquire language quickly despite its complexity
Human infants acquire language without explicit instruction
Any normally developing child can learn any human language, given sufficient
input
Ambiguity:
1. (syntactic) I shot the bear in my pajamas
a. I am in my pajamas
b. The bear is in my pajamas
2. (morphological) The door is unlockable
a. Unable to be locked
b. Able to be unlocked
3. (semantic) Everyone loves someone
a. For every person x, there exists some person that x loves
b. There is some person y such that every person loves y
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in
Ungrammaticality:
1.
a. Who did you say he saw ___?
b. Who did you say that he saw ___?
c. Who did you say saw him?
d. Who did you say that ___ saw him? *
2.
a. Sarah plays the trumpet.
b. What does sarah play __?
c. Sarah plays the trumpet and the clarinet.
d. What does Sarah play the trumpet and ___? *
Which are possible English words?
a. Blick
b. Ngaught
c. Redokz
d. Twiggle
e. Bhasa
f. Wug
Sound Structure/Mistakes:
Mistakes follow specific patterns
Likely: dear old queen → queer old dean
Unlikely: dear old queen → near old queed
On the Subject of Grammar:
Linguistics is concerned with grammar
Prescriptive → not the grammar that linguists are interested in
Prescribes a particular way of speaking, signing, or writing
Make value judgments concerning language use
Preference for “older” language forms
Attempt to impose grammar rules from one language onto another
Encourage the use of unnatural expressions
find more resources at oneclass.com
find more resources at oneclass.com
Unlock document

This preview shows pages 1-2 of the document.
Unlock all 5 pages and 3 million more documents.

Already have an account? Log in

Get access

Grade+
$10 USD/m
Billed $120 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
40 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class
Class+
$8 USD/m
Billed $96 USD annually
Homework Help
Class Notes
Textbook Notes
30 Verified Answers
Study Guides
1 Booster Class