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Lecture 12

MEDT220 Lecture 12: Chapter 12 –respiratory system

14 Pages
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Department
Medical Laboratory Sciences
Course Code
MEDT220
Professor
kimberlyarnold

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Chapter 12 –respiratory system
Respiration
Main function of respiratory system:
oMovement of oxygen from the outside air to the cells within tissues and
transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction
Two processes:
oExternal respiration
oInternal respiration
External respiration: exchange of air at the lung capillaries
ooxygen inhaled into the air spaces of the lungs
oimmediately passes into capillaries surrounding air spaces
ocarbon dioxide passes from capillaries into air sacs, to be exhaled
oInhaled air = 21% O2
oExhaled air = 16% O2
Internal respiration: exchange of gases in the cells
ooccurs simultaneously between cells and tissue capillaries
ooxygen passes out of the bloodstream into the tissues
ocarbon dioxide passes out of tissues back into the bloodstream to travel to the
lungs for exhalation
Nose
o--air enters body through two openings = nostrils/nares
Nasal cavity
o--lined with mucous membranes to warm and moisten air
o--lined with cilia to filter out foreign bodies
Epiglottis
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o--flap of cartilage attached to the root of the tongue prevents choking or
aspiration of food
o--lid over the opening of the larynx
o--during swallowing, closes over larynx to prevent material from entering lungs
Oropharynx
o--closer to mouth
o--contains palatine tonsils
Larynx
o--contains vocal cords
o--surrounded by several pieces of cartilage for support and keeps airway open
o--protects against inhaled or swallowed substances
Laryngopharynx
o--common passageway for food from the mouth and air form the nose
Nasopharynx
o--contains pharyngeal tonsils (adenoids)
o--if enlarged can obstruct airways
Pharynx (throat)
oNasopharynx
oOropharynx
oLaryngopharynx
Paranasal sinuses
ohollow, air containing spaces within the skull
o--lined with mucous membranes
o--lighten the bones of the skull; produce sound
Larynx and Vocal Cords
Thyroid cartilage: largest cartilage surrounding larynx
Glottis: opening between vocal folds
Vocal folds vibrate producing buzzing quality = voice
Tension of vocal cords determine high or low pitch
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Respiratory system anatomy
Bronchioles
o--small bronchial branches
Trachea (windpipe)
o--vertical tube (4 ½ inches long; 1 inch diameter)
o--kept open by 16-20 C-shaped rings of cartilage separated by fibrous connective
tissue that stiffen the front and sides
Mediastinum
o--region between the lungs in the chest cavity
Bronchi (sing: bronchus)
o--composed of delicate epithelium surrounded by cartilage rings and muscular
wall
o--each one leads to separate lung
Alveoli (singular: alveolus)
o--air sac of the lung
o--one-cell thick layer of epithelium allowing for exchange of gases with capillary
surrounding it
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Description
Chapter 12 respiratory system Respiration Main function of respiratory system: o Movement of oxygen from the outside air to the cells within tissues and transport of carbon dioxide in the opposite direction Two processes: o External respiration o Internal respiration External respiration: exchange of air at the lung capillaries o oxygen inhaled into the air spaces of the lungs o immediately passes into capillaries surrounding air spaces o carbon dioxide passes from capillaries into air sacs, to be exhaled o Inhaled air = 21 O 2 o Exhaled air = 16 O 2 Internal respiration: exchange of gases in the cells o occurs simultaneously between cells and tissue capillaries o oxygen passes out of the bloodstream into the tissues o carbon dioxide passes out of tissues back into the bloodstream to travel to the lungs for exhalation Nose o air enters body through two openings = nostrilsnares Nasal cavity o lined with mucous membranes to warm and moisten air o lined with cilia to filter out foreign bodies Epiglottis
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