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Lecture 2

MEDT220 Lecture Notes - Lecture 2: Abo Blood Group System, Spermatozoon, Alphonse BertillonPremium

3 pages69 viewsFall 2017

Department
Medical Laboratory Sciences
Course Code
MEDT220
Professor
Lehman, Donald C
Lecture
2

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Areas of Forensic Science
American Academy of Forensic Science
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Toxicology
Analyze specimen for chemicals such as illicit drugs and poisons
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DNA analysis/profiling
Comparing/matching DNA samples
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Forensic pathology
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Conducts autopsies
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Forensic Anthropology
ID and examination of human skeletal remains
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Can reveal sex, age, race, injuries
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Forensic Entomology
Study of insects in relation to an investigation
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Time of death
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Has body been moved?
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Forensic Odontology
Using teeth characteristics, alignment, and structure to ID victims
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Bite mark analysis
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Dentition and dental history are unique to each person
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Odontograms are dental record diagrams
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Radiographs are x-rays
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Arson investigation
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Ballistics
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Fingerprints comparison
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Forensic microbiology
Bio crimes
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Forensic accountants
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Forensic computer scientists
Digital forensics
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Cyber crimes
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“Exfiltration” (unlawful stealing of computer data)
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Background needed
Lab science
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Good communication skills
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DNA analysis
Genetics
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Statistics
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History of Forensic Science
Limited knowledge of anatomy and pathology impeded forensic science
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1775: first test used to detect arsenic in a corpse (Cal Scheele)
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1798: Francois Emanuel Dodere wrote A Treatise on Forensic Medicine
and Public Health
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1806: Vallentin Ross improved methods for detecting arsenic in stomach
lining
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1814: First treatise on detection of poisons and their effects on animals by
Mathieu Orfillia “The Father of Forensic Toxicology”
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1839: microscopy used to detect spermatozoa (good for sexual assaults)
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1839: toxicological evidence first used at a trial by James Marsh
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1863: first presumptive test for blood
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1879: anthropology and morphology applied as a system of ID by
Alphonse Bertillon “Father of Criminal Identification”
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1877: Thomas Taylor proposed using finger prints as a form of ID
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1880: Henry Faulds backed Taylor up in his paper Nature
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1892: Francis Henry Galton had the first definitive study of finger prints
and methodology of classification, Finger Prints
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1887: Sir Arthur Conan Doyle’s first novel Sherlock Holmes
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1901: Karl Landsteiner described the ABO blood type system
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1915: Leone Lattes developed method to test dried blood for AB blood
group antigens
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1910: Edmund Locard’s first police laboratory
Locard’s Exchange Principle: when two objects come in contact
with one another, materials are exchanged between them
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Mid 20th century: computer technology, chromatography and
electrophoresis, DNA typing/profiling
Sir Alec Jeffreys (1989) developed first profiling test
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Forensic Science Laboratories
Oldest crime lab in US 1923
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1932: FBI organized a national lab and offered forensic science services
to all other law enforcement agencies in the US
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Other federal forensic science labs (Homeland security, EPA…)
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Private and public
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Evidence intake
Chain of custody
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Drug tests outnumber DNA testing
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Number of labs increasing
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MEDT%220:%9/1/17
Friday,(September( 1,(2017
3:29(PM
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