PSYC207 Lecture 7: Survey and Observation

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8 Feb 2017
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Construct Validity of Surveys and Polls
- Survey
o used when people are asked about a consumer product
- Poll
o used when people are asked about their social or political opinions
- Surveys and polls
o A method of posing questions to a sample of people over the phone, in personal
interviews, online written questionnaires, or online
- Question format
- Wording of the questions
- Encouraging accurate responses
Choosing Questions Format
- Open-ended questions
o Allow respondents to answer any way they like
o Spontaneous, detailed information
o Needs coding and categorization
Time-consuming, difficult
- Forced-choice format
o People give their opinion by picking the best or more options
o Frequently used in political polls
- Likert scale
o People are presented with a statement and are asked to use a rating scale to
indicate their degree of agreement
o For example, strongly agree, agree, neither agree or disagree, disagree, strongly
disagree
o If it does not follow this format exactly, it may be called Likert-type scale
- Semantic differential format
o Respondent might be asked to rate a target object using a numerical scale
anchored with adjectives
Writing Well-Worded Questions
- Leading Questions
o Leading or priming respondents to respond in a certain way
o Word questions as neutrally as possible to get true opinions
- Double-barreled question
o Questions that ask multiple things
o Don’t know which part of the question respondents are responding to
o Have poor construct validity
- Negative wording
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