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Unit 12.pdf

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PCB 4723C

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Unit 12 Tuesday, November 05, 2013 2:06 PM • CNS ○ Collects sensory information from the outside world and internal signals ○ Compares receivedsignals to past signals and looks for a difference ○ Responds accordingly • PNS ○ Divided into motor PNS and sensory PNS ○ Sensory PNS (receivessignals and sends to CNS)  Divided into special senses and general senses □ Special senses  Generated ONLY from a specific part of the body  Vision, olfaction, taste, hearing, □ General senses  Can be generated or sensed from everywhereon the body  Divided into somatic sensations and visceral sensations ◊ Somatic sensations (superficial part of the body)  Skin, local motor system (feelings from muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints, etc) ◊ Visceral sensations (deep part of the body)  Dull pain, distension ○ MotorPNS (receivessignals from CNS and reacts accordingly)  Somatic □ Under our control  Automatic □ Not under our control □ Sympathetic □ Parasympathetic • Forebrain (proencephalon) ○ Telencephalon (outer structures)  Cerebral cortex, hippocampus, basal ganglia, limbic system ○ Diencephalon (inner structures)  Thalamus, hypothalamus • Midbrain (mesencephalon)  Superior colliculus, inferior colliculus • Hindbrain (Rhombencephalon) ○ Metencephalon  Cerebellum, Pontine Motornuclei ○ Myelencephalon  Medulla • Spinal cord • Grey matter ○ Collection of cell bodies within the CNS ○ Grey mattercan be called the cortex (exposed on the surface of the CNS) or nucleus (within the CNS) ○ Within the deepest part of the cerebral hemisphere (the base), a group of nuclei sit, called the basal nuclei • White matter ○ Can be classified by which way the messagesare moving (up and down, from one half of the brain to the other, or from the front of the brain to the back) called ascending and brain to the other, or from the front of the brain to the back) called ascending and descending tracts, or commissurefibers (i.e. corpus callosum), or association fibers • Reticular formation ○ Part of the brain stem where white matter tracts cross into gray matter, creating fragmented gray matter nuclei • Ganglia ○ Swellings containing aggregates of cell bodies and processes ○ Have a little processing power • An uncentralized system works well for sessile and radially symmetricanimals ○ Have nerve nets ○ No brain ○ Have a nerve net • Centralization and cephalization likely evolvedwith bilateral symmetry ○ Cephalization means a bunch of neurons bundled up in head  Good idea because head is first in contact with environmentand houses all sensory organs, so informationhas to travel less • Arthropod CNS ○ Have a brain, but also multiple large ganglia ○ • Vertebrate CNS ○ Spinal cord lacks ganglia, it’s a continus column • ANS
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