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Lecture 1 -- Essence of Anthropology & Biology and Evolution.docx

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ANT 2000
Elyse Anderson

Essence of Anthropology  Anthropology = the study of humankind in all times and places; divided into four subfields (cultural, linguistic, physical/biological?, and archaeology)  Cultural anthropology = the study of patterns of human behavior, thought, and feelings; focuses on humans as culture producing and reproducing creatures  Culture = a society’s shared and socially transmitted ideas, values, and perceptions, which are used to make sense of experience and which generate behavior and are reflected in that behavior; the unconscious and conscious standards by which society operates  Case study = Jackson (2011) Scents of Place: The Dysplacement of a First Nations Community in Canada (first nations = equivalent of Native Americans in Canada)  Linguistic anthropology = the study of human languages; preserve languages on the brink of extinction, history of languages and interactions between linguistic groups, the effect of language on worldview  Case study = Suslak (2011) Ayapan Echoes: Linguistic Persistence and Loss in Tabasco, Mexico  Physical anthropology = the study of humans as biological organisms (paleoanthropology = focuses on human evolution; molecular anthropology = the study of genes and genetic relationships; forensic anthropology = the identification and study of human remains for legal purposes; primatology = the study of living and fossil primates, not zoology because they are more closely studied since they are so close to humans)  Case study = Kiyamu (2012) Developmental and Genetic Components Explain Enhanced Pulmonary Volumes of Female Peruvian Quechua  Archaeology = the study of the ancient and recent human past through material remains, not just about finding objects (now used more for understanding humans); draws from and informs cultural and biological anthropology  Case study = Pauketat (2009) Cahokia: Ancient America’s Great City on the Mississippi  Outside of academia, anthropologists are employed in the fields of business, education, government, and the military  Anthropological methods = o fieldwork-term for on location research (each subfield of anthropology definitely spends time with the people/sites they are studying and being out with the field) o participant observation (living among and interacting with the participants of your study) o preliminary research (literature and language) and study design (have to have a question in order to know what you are there for/what you are finding out) o consultants = individuals within the culture of study who help the anthropologists understand what they are observing o ethnography = a detailed description of a particular culture primarily based on fieldwork (anthropologis
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