Class Notes (806,933)
United States (312,266)
Anthropology (230)
ANT 2000 (57)
Lecture 7

Lecture 7 -- Emergence of Cities & States.docx

3 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Florida
ANT 2000
Elyse Anderson

Emergence of Cities & States  Lewis Henry Morgan: Three Stages of Cultural Evolution o Savagery to barbarism to civilization (which had writing) o Stages defined by technological achievements (use of fire, bow, agriculture, etc.) o Published in 1848 o Unilineal evolution = the idea that societies can be placed within a stage on a single line of evolution that moves from the most primitive to the most civilized  Allows anthropologists to “go back in time” to study early stages of development  What is wrong with this assumption? = ethnocentrism!  Elman Service, 1962 o Continue evolutionary approach, but changed stages and characteristics of each stage o Societies could be classified in the following categories = band, tribe, chiefdom, state/civilization  Bands =  Small groups related by family and marriage; typically mobile hunter/gatherers  Key traits = informal leadership; division of labor along lines of sex and age; concepts of territoriality and descent weakly developed  Tribes =  Larger groups of settled farmers or pastoralists who believe they share descent from a common ancestor, but who lack centralized control or a strongly developed social hierarchy  Key traits = ancestor worship; lineage descent; ephemeral leadership; sodalities (groups base camaraderie other than kinship) or fraternal order  Chiefdom =  Thousands of individuals organized into lineages ruled by a chief within an institutionalized hierarchy of rank and status (beginning to see difference between have and have-nots)  Key traits = economic redistribution; nobility/commoners; full time religious specialists  State or civilizations =  Societies in which large numbers of people live in cities, are socially stratified, and are governed by a ruling elite working through a centrally organized political system  Key traits = large populations; monumental scale; disparity of wealth and power (social stratification; even bigger gap between have and have-nots); diversification of labor (people whose sole purpose in life is to create goods and then immediately sell them at some market for food); elaborate trade networks o Criticism of societal typologies =  Typologies and archaeological data don’t match up (too much variation to put every society within a box)  Ignores historical context of each history  Latent ideas of racism, colonialism, and progress still linger  Carol Crumley and heterarchy = o People confuse hierarchy with order; societies can be complex, but not hierarchical o Heterarchy = the relation of elements to one another when they are unranked or when they possess the potential for being ranked in a number of different ways  Ancient states developed in various parts of the world at different times and different places = o Mesopotamia, Egypt, Indus Valley (4,500-6,000 years ago) o China (5,000 years ago) o Peru (4,000 years ago) (i.e. Incan Empire) o Mesoamerica (2,000 years ago) (i.e. Maya and Aztecs)  Characteristics of the state = case study of Tikal and the ancient Maya o Estimated population at peak = 45,000 people
More Less

Related notes for ANT 2000

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.