Quiz Wed. No Class ~ Possible long response questions
Gender as Continuum (relation to biology. Continuum[not just male or female] vs
Nature Vs Nurture Debate/Studies
3 Waves of Femenism.
CHAPTER 5: The Evolution of Gender and Difference – Study
• Social Evolutionism– Proposed a hierarchal model for understanding similarities and
differences among human societies (societies that were considered more or less
evolved). 1 School of cultural anthropological theory.
• Hominids– Humans and their immediate ancestors.-No single line of development.
• Natural Selection– idea related to evolution, also paired with Darwinism, which results
from the different survival of individuals with adaptive biological characteristics that
allows them to pass on their genes to future generations in higher numbers.
• Sociobiology – discipline developed by E.O. Wilson in the 1970s that considers natural
selection as cause of all aspects of social behavior in animals, including humans.
• Evolutionary Psychology – field within sociobiology that explains human emotion,
psychological characteristics, and almost all human behavior specific to the people that
exhibit such behavior.
• Colonialism’s views on racial inferiority- rationalized that darker skinned people are
naturally inferior to lighter skinned people. Also Rationalized through scientists who
believed biological attributes especially presumed brain size (assumed women were
incapable of higher thinking).
Emergence of Anthropology:
• Social Evolutionists– Argued that societies evolved from simple to complex. Claimed
that societies evolved through struggles of fitness.
Stages of Cultural Evolution
Ethnical Period Family Formation Identifying “Invention” Features Savagery No family, Indiscriminate
Middle -Invention of Speech; substance on
fruit and nuts, fishing; the ability to
-Invention of Bow and arrow.
Barbarism Communal marriages
Lower -Pottery making
Middle -Domestication of animals in the Old
World; cultivation of maize by
irrigation and stone architecture in
the New World
-Iron tools and metallurgy
Civilization Monogamous Marriages Phonetic alphabet writing
• Herbert Spencer: Male rights and Male dominance; Advocates patrilineal descent;
• Matrilineal thinkers: Women should be ‘free’ from productive labor, had limited energy,
should care for children.
• Critique of Social Evolutionism – Set out to explain assumptions, identidied societies
according to their materialistic culture (technology), assumed that biological traits were
responsible for societies that were less developed.
Critiques to Man the Hunter and Man the Provisioner:
Bipedalism: Most significant trait separating humans form animals
Our intellect interests emotions and basic social life are all products of the success of hunting
Washburn Lancaster-Hunting’s satisfaction still seen today in sports and war.
• Contemporary Evolutionary Argumen