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Ch 5 Study Guide.docx

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ANT 3302
Corey Souza

Quiz Wed. No Class ~ Possible long response questions Gender as Continuum (relation to biology. Continuum[not just male or female] vs Binary System) Nature Vs Nurture Debate/Studies 3 Waves of Femenism. CHAPTER 5: The Evolution of Gender and Difference – Study Guide Introduction: • Social Evolutionism– Proposed a hierarchal model for understanding similarities and differences among human societies (societies that were considered more or less evolved). 1 School of cultural anthropological theory. • Hominids– Humans and their immediate ancestors.-No single line of development. • Natural Selection– idea related to evolution, also paired with Darwinism, which results from the different survival of individuals with adaptive biological characteristics that allows them to pass on their genes to future generations in higher numbers. • Sociobiology – discipline developed by E.O. Wilson in the 1970s that considers natural selection as cause of all aspects of social behavior in animals, including humans. • Evolutionary Psychology – field within sociobiology that explains human emotion, psychological characteristics, and almost all human behavior specific to the people that exhibit such behavior. • Colonialism’s views on racial inferiority- rationalized that darker skinned people are naturally inferior to lighter skinned people. Also Rationalized through scientists who believed biological attributes especially presumed brain size (assumed women were incapable of higher thinking). Emergence of Anthropology: • Social Evolutionists– Argued that societies evolved from simple to complex. Claimed that societies evolved through struggles of fitness. Stages of Cultural Evolution Ethnical Period Family Formation Identifying “Invention” Features Savagery No family, Indiscriminate Low mating Middle -Invention of Speech; substance on fruit and nuts, fishing; the ability to make fire. -Invention of Bow and arrow. Upper Barbarism Communal marriages Lower -Pottery making Middle -Domestication of animals in the Old World; cultivation of maize by irrigation and stone architecture in the New World -Iron tools and metallurgy Upper Civilization Monogamous Marriages Phonetic alphabet writing • Herbert Spencer: Male rights and Male dominance; Advocates patrilineal descent; • Matrilineal thinkers: Women should be ‘free’ from productive labor, had limited energy, should care for children. • Critique of Social Evolutionism – Set out to explain assumptions, identidied societies according to their materialistic culture (technology), assumed that biological traits were responsible for societies that were less developed. Critiques to Man the Hunter and Man the Provisioner: Bipedalism: Most significant trait separating humans form animals Our intellect interests emotions and basic social life are all products of the success of hunting adaptation. Washburn Lancaster-Hunting’s satisfaction still seen today in sports and war. • Contemporary Evolutionary Argumen
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