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United States (325,937)
Anthropology (230)
ANT 3302 (7)


4 Pages

Course Code
ANT 3302
Corey Souza

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CH.8 +9 Strucure VSAgency  Structure- Societal norms=established as normal via ritual practice.  societal context that differentially constrains and enables people’s actions based on their position in society  Agency- Individual action (What can you do to counteract structure if and when structure infringes on your personal human rights) independent of oppressive structures.  Claude Levi-Strauss (1908-2005)- Father of structuralism  Ferdinand Saussure- Semiology; Language is a system which determines structures related to culture.  Structure- entity whose parts conform to intrinsic law creating internal and logic consistency  Structure of language is grammar. Structure of culture is…Women in distinguishing between ‘nature+culture’  Early Feminists (Patriarchal System)  Levi Strauss  Structures of societal organization are products of underlying brain structure  Mental organization is Binary  Nature VS Culture: Redux  Any event or item can be natural, cultural or both  The Incest Taboo: Natural Beings become Cultural; Universal law prohibits mating with close kin.  ensures transfer of women away from their kinship group, as objects of exchange to cement social ties.  females become objects of exchange, lacking volition.  Carol MacCormack  Sole exchange of women ignores the mobility of men and the politics involved in acquiring social power and titles by both sexes.  Ortner + Women’s oppression  Influenced by Strauss  Gender as a social construct, created by men to serve their purposes (false consciousness?)  Since humans have transcended nature into culture, “natural” women are devalued  Women live in cultural societies, and even shape ‘natural’infants into cultural children and adults.  The way we think keeps women subordinate, no inherent biological subordination  de Beauvoir: men derive identity from not being women, and so women become the ‘other’.  Circular reasoning: males being able to establish women as ‘other’presupposes male dominance, and does not explain it  Practice Theory(Bourdieu)- approach that analyzes not only how social structures influence human activities, but also how human activities influence social structures.  Clifford Geertz-  Interpretive anthropology strives to understand culture by interpreting the symbols that people create in order to understand how people give meaning to their world.  Culture is made up of symbolic systems, which are sets of relationships among symbols (EX: winking).  Pierre Bourdieu-  People interact with one another in fields, spaces of conflict where they compete to achieve their objectives.  One
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