APK 2105C Lecture Notes - Lecture 28: Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate, Gs Alpha Subunit, Gi Alpha Subunit

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Chapter 8, Lecture 1
Synaptic Transmission
Synapses in the nervous system
o Electrical synapses
Gap junctions
Electrical coupling of cells with similar function
Less common
o Chemical synapses
Neurotransmitters to communicate with
Neurons
Muscles
Glands
Most common
Parts of synapse are acting together to create site of communication
Presynaptic neuron contains mitochondria
o Mitochondria needed to exocytose neurotransmitters
Synaptic cleft = space between pre and postsynaptic neurons
o Very small
o Neurotransmitters cross this and then bind to ligand gated
receptors on the postsynaptic neurons
Postsynaptic neuron
Functional anatomy of chemical synapses
o Presynaptic neuron
o Postsynaptic neuron
o Most common with multipolar neurons
o Synaptic cleft
Full of interstitial fluid
o Axo-dendritic synapse
o Axo-somatic synapse
o Axo-axonic synapse
Usually closer to end of axon on postsynaptic neuron
Synaptic transmission
o The more Ca allowed into the axon terminal the more neurotransmitter is
released
How can we get more Ca in?
Higher firing frequency of APs
Ca channel stays open for a longer period of time
More neurotransmitter = more response from target cell
o Steps
AP comes down
Ca is absorbed through voltage gated Ca channels
Voltage change from AP coming down
Initiates exocytosis
Neurotransmitter binds to receptor site on postsynaptic neuron
Degretory enzymes on membrane of pre and post synaptic neurons
Break down ligands so they can be reused
Reuptake enzymes on presynaptic neurons
o Helps recycle ligands
o May break down and only some parts are recycled
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