APK 2105C Lecture Notes - Lecture 35: Adrenal Medulla, Bradykinin Receptor B2, Posterior Pituitary

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Chapter 14, Lecture 6
Vessels & Blood Pressure
Extrinsic control of BP: arteriolar radius
o Redistribution works only when simultaneous extrinsic mechanisms maintain an
adequate perfusion pressure
o Flow = pressure gradient / resistance
o MAP = CO x TPR
Arranged this way will help us look at extrinsic control more
Sympathetic control of arteriolar radius
o Sympathetic nerves release NE (norepinephrine)
Catecholamine
Alpha-receptors in arteriolar smooth muscle
Vasoconstriction
o Adrenal medulla releases epinephrine in blood
B2 receptors = located on arteriolar smooth muscles that are feeding
heart and skeletal muscle
Vasodilation
Alpha = located on all arteriolar smooth muscle
Vasoconstriction
Hormonal control of arteriolar radius
o Vasoconstriction
Vasopressin (ADH)
Released from neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary)
Anti-diuresis
o Impacts kidneys to keep waterhigher blood volume
increased BP
Angiotensin II
Plasma protein
Derived from another plasma protein (angiotensinogen from liver)
Very powerful pressor effect
Capillary anatomy is well-suited for exchange
o 2 types of capillaries
Continuous
Majority of capillaries
Narrow intercellular gap (or cleft)
Loose CT holding capillary to organ its serving
Basement membrane
Tight junctions in these capillaries are leaky
Fenestrated
Wide intercellular gap between the cells
o WBCs can go through
Fenestrations = pores through the side of the cell
Seen in areas where large molecule needs to be exchanged
Seen where fast exchange is needed
Discontinuous
Bone marrow
Spleen
Local control of BF through capillary beds
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