APK 2105C Lecture Notes - Lecture 38: Functional Residual Capacity, Costal Cartilage, Simple Squamous Epithelium

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Chapter 16, Lecture 2
Pulmonary Ventilation
Anatomy of thoracic cavity
o Air-tight cavity
Pressure outside body is totally different
Allows for lungs to do their thing
o Bottom barrier = diaphragm
Floor of TC
o CT and ribs = roof of TC
o Ribs and costal cartilage = walls of TC
Costal cartilage attach ribs to sternum
o Muscle in between ribs and covering posterior walls of TC
Intercostals muscles between ribs
The pleura
o Each pleura surrounds a long
o Double layered membrane of simple squamous epithelium
Space in between the layers = pleural cavity
Serous fluid fills the cavity
o Totally separate from pericardium
o Functions
Lubrication between moving organs
Compartmentalization of thoracic cavity
Keeps infects localized
Intrapleural pressure keeps the lungs partially expanded at all times
Muscles of respiration
o Skeletal muscles
We have control
Have some involuntary control tooreflexes
o Muscles of inspiration
Contracts into flatter when inspire
Intercostal muscles
o Fibers are down and inward
o Contract to pull ribs and sternum up and out to enlarge TC
Have to expend ATP
o Expiratory muscles
Passive at rest—don’t need ATP
Relax expiratory muscles
Abdominal muscles
Contract, push diaphragm up, squeeze air out from underneath
Internal intercostals muscles
o Help keep TC airtight
Pulmonary pressures
o Resting lung = between breathes
After you’ve inhaled, and exhaled
Functional residual capacity (FRC)
Amount of air left after you inhale and exhaleat rest
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