APK 2105C Lecture Notes - Lecture 37: Bronchus, Respiratory Tract, Pulmonary Circulation

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Chapter 16, Lecture 1
Pulmonary Ventilation
Pulmonary = lungs
Respiration = gas exchange
o External respiration = exchange of gases between atomosphere and body
tissues
Necessary for internal respiration to occur
4 processes
Pulmonary ventilation (breathing)
Exchange of gases between lung air and blood (diffusion)
Transportation of gases between lungs and body tissues
Exchange of gases between blood and tissues (diffusion
o Internal (cellular) respiration = use of O at mitochondria to generate ATP
Oxidative phosphorylation
Makes CO2 (getting rid of CO2 = part of external respiration)
Other functions of respiratory system
o Acid base balance of blood
CO2 = acidic
o Vocalization
o Defense against pathogens and foreign particles in the airways
o Route for water and heat loss
o Enhancing venous return (respiratory pump)
o Activating plasma proteins as they pass through pulmonary circuit
Ex: angiotensinogen converted by rennin angiotensin 1 which is
converted by ACE ansinogen 2
Anatomy of respiratory system
o Air comes in through nasal or oral cavity
o Air dumps into pharynx = throat region
o Pharynx terminates as larynx
Lots of cartilage
o Larynx is start of upper respiratory tract
o Larynx trachea
Lots of C shaped cartilage that is open
posteriorly to accommodate the
esophagus
o Trachea bifurcates into primary bronchi
airway to each lung
o Right lung = 3 lobes
o Left lung = 2 lobes
o Primary bronchi lobar (secondary) bronchi
(1 for each lobe of lung)
o Tertiary bronchi
o Lots more bronchi branches afterwards
o Bronchiole = 1 mm in diameter
o Terminal bronchioles = < 0.5 mm in diameter
o Alveoli on terminal bronchioles = respiratory
bronchioles
o Alveolar sac
o Lots of alveoli
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