APK 2105C Lecture Notes - Lecture 46: Adrenal Gland, Pineal Gland, Thyroid

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Chapter 6, Lecture 2
Endocrine Glands & Hormones
Pineal gland (the third eye)
o Located in the brain
o Singular structure in the brain (a lot of other things in the brain have 2 halves
NOT the pineal gland)
o Very smalllarge rice
Pinecone shaped
Helps regulate circadian rhythm
Receives input from visual stimuli to release melatonin
Thyroid and parathyroid gland
o Larynx = Adam’s apple
Thyroid gland sits right underneath/behind
o Thyroid gland
Secretes T3 and T4
Regulate metabolism, growth, development
Secretes calcitonin
Decreases blood Ca levels
Butterfly shaped
On the back of each side are parathyroid glands
o Parathyroid glands
Release PTH (parathyroid hormone)
Increases blood Ca levels
Stimulate osteoclast production
Thymus gland
o Secretes thymosin
Regulates T cell production/maturation which are important for proper
immune function
o Very large in infantsshrivels in adults to very small size
o In the chest
Adrenal glands (suprarenal glands)
o On top of the kidneys
o Triangular shape
o Outer and inner portion
Outer portion = cortex
3 layers that are responsible for secreting different hormones
Secretes a class of hormones called adrenocorticoids
o Steroid hormones
o Mineralcorticoids
Regulates Na reabsorption and K secretion in
o Glucocorticoids
Regulate stress response, substrate metabolism,
BG levels
o Sex hormones
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