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Ch. 7 (Pt. 1)

2 Pages

Biology - Biological Sciences
Course Code
BSC 2010
Gerlach, Nicole

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2/13/13 Ch. 7 I. Genetics A. Genetics - study of heredity 1. Transfer of biological info between cells; parent to offspring B. Molecular genetics: DNA, RNA, proteins C. Mendelian genetics: cells, individuals D. Population and evolutionary genetics: populations, species E. Biological info is stored in DNA and organized into chromosomes 1. Chromosome - structure that consists of a single molecule of DNA bound to proteins called histones II. Cell Cycle & Division A. Asexual reproduction - where offspring are clones of each other and their parents; genetically identical 1. Prokaryotes: binary fission 2. Eukaryotes: mitosis B. Sexual reproduction - process that requires gametes; 2 parents each contribute 1 gamete to 1 offspring 1. Gametes form by meiosis 2. Only occurs in eukaryotes C. Cell division: 1. Reproduction signal starts cell division 2. Replication of DNA 3. Segregation of DNA into 2 new cells 4. Cytokinesis - division of cytoplasm and separation of the 2 new cells D. Prokaryotic binary fission results in the reproduction of the entire organism 1. Most prokaryotes have 1 circular chromosome 2. Ori - where replication starts 3. Steps: a. Replication b. Segregation: ori complexes move to opposite ends of the cell c. Cytokinesis - pinching in of plasma membrane to form new cell wall d. Result: 2 daughter cells E. Eukaryotes have multiple chromosomes 1. Karyotype - reflects the number and sizes of chromosomes F. Homologous - chromosomes of the same size, shape, and centromere position 1. Carries DNA for same genes G. Haploid cell: n
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