Ch. 9 (Pt. 1): DNA & Heredity

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Biology - Biological Sciences
BSC 2010
Gerlach, Nicole

2/25/13 Ch. 9: DNA & Heredity I. General Info A. Molecular genetics – inheritance of traits focusing on informational macromolecules (e.g. DNA, RNA) B. Nucleotide: nitrogenous base, phosphate group, sugar C. DNA is antiparallel II. DNA A. Criteria to be accepted as DNA: 1. Has to be present in cell nucleus and chromosomes 2. Doubles in cell cycle 3. Twice as abundant in diploid cells 4. Same pattern of transmission as genetic info B. Miescher: found DNA in nucleus 1. Nuclein – phosphate rich acid in nuclei 2. DNA found in chromosomes using dyes C. Flow cytometer – staining and passing dividing cells through a microscope 1. Nondividing cells: same amount of DNA 2. After meiosis, gametes have half of the amount of DNA D. Griffiths: discovered transformation of a substance from 1 strain of bacteria could genetically transform another strain E. Avery, MacLeod, McCarty: excluded proteins, DNA, and RNA to test which was necessary for genetic info F. Hershey and Chase: discovered that DNA is genetic material 1. Bacteriophage – injects DNA into cell; cell becomes virus making factory G. Erwin Chargaff: said that the abundance of purines is equal to the abundance of pyrimidines (Chargaff’s rule) H. X-ray crystallography – pattern of diffraction of X-rays passed through a crystallized substance that shows the position of atoms 1. Rosalind Fra
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