Ch. 11: Gene Expression

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Department
Biology - Biological Sciences
Course Code
BSC 2010
Professor
Gerlach, Nicole

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3/13/13 Ch. 11 I. Gene Expression A. Gene expression – final production of a functional gene product (e.g. protein) B. Gene regulation – control over timing and rate of gene expression C. Genomic totipotency – all somatic cells share the same DNA D. House-keeping genes – genes that are so critical to day-to-day existence that they are always “on” 1. Constituitve expression – genes that are always “on” E. Luxury genes – those that are only by specific cells and/or at specific times 1. Inducible expression – expressed only when protein is needed by cell F. Gene expression can be regulated at any point in central dogma G. Prokaryote gene regulation – few regulatory controls for multiple structural (protein- coding) genes H. Eukaryotic gene regulation – multiple regulatory controls for each structural gene II. Positive and Negative Regulation A. Transcription factors (regulator proteins) – control when a gene is active B. Negative regulators – gene is constituitively repressed by repressors C. Positive regulators – gene is not typically expressed but can be induced by an activator D. Operons (in bacteria) – what gene expression is based on 1. Contains operator – short stretch of DNA near the promoter that controls transcription E. Lac operon – specific chromosomal region of E. coli chromosome that contains genes needed for the catabolism of lactose 1. Repressor constituitiveley expressed; operon is not expressed III. Eukaryotic Gene Expression A. Gene regulation is more complex (e.g. specialization) 1. Gene regulation is required over both space (cell-to-cell) and time (zygote to multicellular adult) B. Larger genomes C. More complicated cells (with mitochondria, nuclear membranes) D. Prokaryotes: operons; multiple structural genes under a single regulatory control E. Eukaryotes: operons rare; multiple regulatory controls for single structural genes F. C
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