Ch. 9, 12, 13: Biotechnology

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Biology - Biological Sciences
BSC 2010
Gerlach, Nicole

3/18/13 Ch. 9, 12, & 13: Biotechnology I. Ch. 9 A. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) – how copies of DNA sequences can be made B. Requirements for PCR: 1. Double-stranded DNA sample 2. 4 dNTPs 3. DNA polymerase that works at high temperatures 4. 2 short primers complementary to the ends of the sequence to be amplified C. Steps of PCR: 1. Sequence is heated to a high temperature causing the protein to be denatured 2. Once it is cooled, primers anneal to the sequence 3. The sequence elongates at the primers D. Purpose of PCR: to amplify DNA target sequence to more easily study it as opposed to having to keep searching for same sequence II. Ch. 13 A. Gel electrophoresis – way to separate DNA fragments 1. A mixture of fragments is placed into a well in semisolid gel and is consequently separated B. When DNA fragments separate, it yields 3 types of information: 1. Number of fragments 2. Sizes of the fragments 3. Relative abundance of fragments, indicated by the intensity of the band in the gel C. Sanger sequencing – sequencing of a fragment III. Ch. 12 A. Next generation DNA sequencing – works similarly to Sanger sequencing, but it can sequence many fragments at a time 1. Fluorescent color of each nucleotide is shown as it is added B
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