Lecture Notes BSC 2010 8_26_13.doc

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Biology - Biological Sciences
BSC 2010

Lecture Notes BSC 2010 8/26 Macromolecules- large molecules formed by covalent linkages of small molecules 4 Types of Macromolecules 1. Proteins 2. Carbohydrates 3. Lipids 4. Nucleic Acids *** Except for lipids all other macromolecules are polymers… created by linking monomers Polymers formed/broken in rxn in H2O Condensation or Dehydration Reaction- removing H2O creates covalent bonds. Hydrolysis- adds H2O and breaks covalent bonds. Amino and carboxyl functional group forms bases and acids by attracting or dropping protons Acids- donate protons Bases- take up protons Carbohydrates Cn(H2O)n Small carbohydrates known as simple sugars Large carbohydrates and made of many simple sugars Arrangement of carbon in sugar gives them different functions Monosaccharide covalently bonded by condensation reactions that form glycosidic linkages --Sucrose is a disaccharide Oligosaccharides are small stretches of monomers usually about 20 monomers long. Polysaccharides -large chains of monosacchrides ****
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