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CHM 2045


 o C. WARNING: this does not mean that weak acids have strong conjugate base; it may be weak or strong. The weaker the acid, the stronger it’s conjugate base, but that doesn’t mean it is a strong base. o D. Check this motherfucking diagram:  1. • Strong Acids and Bases for the MCAT o A. Strong acid: stronger than hydronium  1. Strong base: stronger than hydroxide (I think?) o B. Weak acid: weaker than hydronium  1. Weak base: weaker than hydroxide (I think?) Strong Acid Formula Strong Base Formula Hydroiodic acid HI Sodium hydroxide NaOH Hydrobromic acid HBr Potassium hydroxide KOH Hydrochloric acid HCl Amide ion NH 2- - Nitric acid HNO 3 Hydride ion H HClO Calcium hydroxide Ca(OH) Perchloric acid 4 2 Chloric acid HClO 3 Sodium oxide Na2O Sulfuric acid H2SO 4 Calcium oxide CaO • pH: Conjugates Continued o A. Amphoteric: substance that can act as either an acid or a base, depending on the environment o B. Polyprotic acids: can donate more than one proton o C. Diprotic:  1. Donate just two protons  2. Can also be called polyprotic  3. Second proton is so weak that it’s effect on pH is negligible (rula: if the K values differ by more than 10 )  4. It should be noted that percent dissociation decreases with increasing acidity; this means acids dissociate less in more concentrated solutions (Le Chatelier’s)  5. This does not mean that concentrated solutions are less acidic o D. Say it again:  1. Acid dissociation decreases with increasing acid concentration  2. Acid strength increases with acid concentration 
  3. Example: • a. 100 acid molecules in a given volume of water  50 dissociate  50% dissociation  50 hydrogen ions • b. 1000 acid molecules in the same volume of water  400 dissociate  40% dissociation  400 hydrogen ions  more hydrogen ions in same amount of water = more acid strength, less % dissociation • c. Impact of this: increasing [weak acid] by 10x does NOT result in 10x hydrogen ion concentration; the acid strength increases, but the percent dissociation decreases • Percent Ionization of an Acid o A. Factors affecting percent ionization of an acid  1. Temperature of solution  2. Identity of acid  3. Concentration of acid • Molecular Structure and Acid Strength: Halides o A. Three factors Determine if a Compound Will release its’ proton: strength, polari
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