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CHM 2045 (77)
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University of Florida
CHM 2045


 o B. Diagram: o C. Note:  1. Oxidation potential of hydrogen is zero…  2. …the oxidation potential of any electrode used in conjunction with SHE = reduction potential of the half reaction occurring at the other electrode  3. Thus: some half reaction reduction potentials can be measured using SHE o D. Note: No salt bridge in the above cell  1. Why? Both electrodes are in contact with the same solution…salt bridge not necessary o E. Liquid Junction:  1. Required when a cell contains: two different solutions  2. Ions can move across the liquid junction; thus creates an additional potential difference that affects the potential of the galvanic cell  3. A salt bridge minimizes this potential difference • Salt Bridge o A. A type of liquid junction used to minimize the potential difference in a SHE galvanic cell o B. Composed of: aqueous electrolyte solution, like KCl o C. Purpose:  1. Allows ionic conduction between solutions without creating extra potential within the galvanic cell. How, you ask? Fuck you I’ll tell you o D. How?  1. K+ ions move toward the cathode at the same rate that Cl- ions move toward the anode o E. And if we don’t have one?  1. Solutions mix   2. Low resistance path for electrons to move from Zn(s) to C(aq)   3. Short circuits the cell   4. Cell potential = 0 o F. Diagram, bitches 
  1. • IUPAC Conventions: Cell Diagram o A. Cell diagram: represents galvanic cells o B. Phase: listed from left to right  1. Left: terminal attached to anode  2. Right: terminal attached to cathode o C. Terminals: omitted because:  1. They are the same material  2. Do not participate in the reaction o D. Vertical line:  1. Placed between two phases o E. Double vertical line:  1. Salt bridge o F. Dotted vertical line:  1. Boundary between two miscible liquids o G. Comma:  1. Boundary between species in the same phase • IUPAC Conventions: Cell Diagram Example o A. o B. Find Standard State Potential  1. Subtract the potential of the reduction half reaction on the left (reaction at anode) from the potential of the reduction half reaction on the right (reaction at cathode) • Free Energy and Chemical Energy o A. Positive cell potential  1. Indicates a spontaneous reaction  2. Indicates a negative ΔG o B. Equation: ΔG = -nFE max  1. n = # of moles of electrons transferred in balanced redox reaction  2. F
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