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Clinical and Health Psychology
DEP 3053

Dep3053 Oldest human 122 years Misao okawa oldest woman alive to date (115) Human life expectancy has increased over time Up series 30% - buy online -Pick a character then answer the questions read syllabus and up document learnsmart modules LOOK FOR 1800-331-5094 customer experience for mcgraw hill buyaccess learnsmart 40$ polleverywhere additional submit earlier 5 extra credit points on the end of the year thing 12/27/13 development is a lifelong process. Prenatal through late adulthood Multidirectionality – happening in a social context, in different directions, good and bad, it can effect biology, social life etc Gains to loss ratio. Growth in earlier life. The loss increases over time. Stability vs change is very multidirectional and theoretical Continuity vs discontinuity- continuous change such as a tree growing and discontinuity can be displayed with the growth of a butterfly from caterpillar to butterfly. Pragmatics(eg. Wisdom, knowledge, good and right) not much change across life. Across the board stability Mechanics(e.g, working memory) Working memory- how fast you can do things, etc. declines over time. Cognitive memory. Three contextual influences Paul baltes Biology and environment and the interactions they share. Normative age graded- biological, hits at a certain time age frame, correlated with age Normative history graded- culture, experiences are different, social context is a bit different. Natural catraophy Individual (non normative) – experience different events at a not normal age Development is malleable (plasticity)- not determined there are things that can change it. An individual can be altered but each person must build on what they know. Cognitive training makes more of a difference in younger ages 4 stages of development first age- childhood and adolences second age- prime adulthood (20s through 50s) third age- approx. 60-79 fourth- approx. 80+ concepts of age chronological age- actual year biological age, psychological age, social age- interact with chronological age biological age- health, cognitive functions psychological age- maturity emotional cognitive functioning social age- having kids young and being a grandma young etc READ SYLLABUS 8/29/13 Longitiutdal and cross sectional and cross sequential are study methods used over time Cross sectional- compares groups of people who differ in age but are similar in other important characteristics Co-ordinance Advantage- quicker, cheaper, must researcher choose this, you can do this as an individual researcher. Longitudinal design- studies the same individuals over a period of time usually several years or more Cross sequential – first several groups of people of different ages are studied(cross-sectional) and then followed over the years (longitudinal) very seldom, disentangle age from cohort. Very expensive. Loosing people, sample gets smaller and smaller. Gets smaller and younger because people are constantly dying Not an advantage of cross sequential compared to cross sectional design -Participant attrition descriptive – aims to observe and record behavior correlational- describes strength of the relationship between two or more events or characteristics using a correlation coefficient correlation can exist between two variables if one variable is more likely to occur when the other occurs(+.-,0) .40 and -.60 -.60 is more strongly correlated with .40 because its closer to -1 problem with experiemtnal designs is that they can be very artificial, limited setting etc way to test hypotheses observations survey/interview etc -scientific observation has to be systematic and objective/controlled -in a lab or naturalistic setting -observer tries to be unobtrusive - does not indicate what causes people to do what they do, not causation. Survey and interview -Standard sets of questions used to obtain peoples attitudes or beliefs about a particular topic collected via interviews -Quick and direct way to obtain data - self report measure gets thoughts and feelings - large number of people - people can be dishonest - can be influenced by response bias(social desirability) and demand characteristics case study - one individual is studied intensely - - clinical psychology - -―test ideas in process‖ - qualitative subjective - cannot prove general statements standardized tests, physiological measures- fmri etc chapter 2: Iterative process – study - explanation- study - explanation- hypothesis testing Theory is ideas and the data fills in those ideas Need the theory and imperical evidence Grand theories - Psychoanalytic - Cognitive - Behavioral and social cognitive - Ethological - Ecological Eclectic theoretical- not to zoom in on one theory but pick and choose the best from each. Pick what works Psychoanalytic - frued, Ericson, adler - unconscious (inner needs and drives and drives our behavior) - Stage theories- emphasize the exclusivity and distinctiveness of drives, needs and conflicts during given life periods - Negotiation of tensions and conflicts affects movement to the next stage Freud -biologically determined -psychosexual development stages -if the need for pleasure at any stage is either under gratified or over gratified an individual may become ―locked in‖ at that stage of development. Erik erikson Desire to affiliate with other people- relationships and social demands shape development - 8 stages - - each stage comprises a crisis or task that must be resolved cognitive theory - cognitive thought piaget -active child- we should not doctrine children but rather them tell us what they find interesting and they will flourish - assimilation : new experiences reinterpret to fit into old ideas - accommodation: old ideas restructured to include new experience - phases such as sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational vygotsky social interactions and culture, inventions of society -apprenticeship in thinking - learning from more experienced members of one culture guided participation -mutual involvement in joint tasks urie brondenbrenner ecological systems theory multidisciplinary levels of environment influence development microsystem, mesosystem,exosystem, macrosystem 09/03/13 chapter 3 prenatal development and birth germinal period- first 2 weeks after conception ; implantation embryonic period- week 2-8 after conception ; organogenesis fetal period- 2 months after conception until birth pregnant women refers to this time in trimesters 3 trimesters split 9 months by 3 brain development- 100 billion neurons neurogenesis- generation of new neurons neuronal migration- cells move forwards from point of origin to appropriate locations. Age of viability Before 22 weeks – low chance 23-26 wees – 2/3 however mental retardation by week 28- 95% mostly normal later development maturity is more crucial than birth weight each day of final three months improves odds of survival and of a healthy and happy baby maturation of neurological, respiratory cardiovascular systems mother-child relationship intensifies – fetal size and movement; fetus aware of sounds(voice and heartbeat), smells etc 31% of all zygotes grow and survive to become living newborn babies germinal period – 60% of all developing organisms fail to grow and implant properly embryonic period- 20% of all embryos aborted spontaneously often because of chromosomal abnormalities fetal period 5% of all fetuses aborted spontaneously teratogen- any agent that can cause a birth defect or negatively alter cognitive and behavioral outcomes prenatal influence ; timing dosage and genes postnatal influences ; early care, attachment, education threshold effect – teratogen relativity harmless in small doses interaction effects- risk can be greatly magnified when exposed to more than one teratogen at the same time. Fetal alcohol syndrome Cluster of birth defects caused by mothers drinking alcohol while pregnant 09/05/13 birth methods of childbirth natural vs prepared(cesarean delivery) waterbirth massage acupuncture, hyposis, music therapy etc medications involved analgesia, anesthesia, oxytocin birth stages stage 1: uterine contractions 15-20 min apart last up to 1 min stage 2:babys head starts to move through cervix and birth canal; ends when baby completely emerges stage 3: afterbirth- umbilical cord, placenta, and other membranes detached and expelled the newborns first minutes  between spontaneous cries, first breaths cause oxygen to circulate – infants color changes from bluish to pinkish  eyes open wide, fingers grab, toes stretch and retract  often removal of mucus in throat  cut umbilical cord to detach placenta  placenta expelled  newborn weighed ,examined, wrapped. Apgar scale is the responsiveness test babies undergo Medical interventions Death rate is 1 in 200 - associated with extremely low birth weight or massive birth defects (premature) c section microsurgery in case of serious organic abnormalities specialized feeding , warmth, extra oxygen one of the most serious birth complications is lack of oxygen= anoxia - if longer than a few seconds can cause brain damage or death to baby - fetal heart monitored during birth process; apgar newborns color check low birth weight(LBW) parents should be encouraged to engage in early care giving - parent alliance Postpartum Period Lasts 6 weeks or until mothers body completed adjustment and returned to nearly pre-pregnant state Physical adjustments: -loss of sleep/fatigue -hormones changes -involution: uterus returns to pre-pregnant size chapter 4 at birth the brain is 25% of its adult weight; at 2 years of age it is 75% of its adult weight neuron- nerve cell in human central nervous system developmental changes in neurons - continued myelination - greater connectivity and new neural pathways growth and refinement in nural networks ―postnatal rise and fall of synapse‖ transient exuberance - vast increase in number of dendrites in brane - - enables neurons to become connected to other neurons pruning - unused neurons and misconnected dendrites atrophy and die - - increases brain power ―booming and pruning‖ of synapses ad pace of myelination varies by brain region depressed brain activity has been found in children who grow up in a deprived environment brain plasticity allows for changes reflexes built in reactions to stimuli, inborn, automatic, involuntary newborns have many reflexes, some disappear with maturation reflexes can serve various fuctions maintain oxygen supply- breathing reflex, hiccups, sneezes, thrashing maintain constant body temperature shiver, tugging in legs, push away manage feeding sucking relex, rooting reflex, swallowing gross motor skills muscle strength brain maturation practice fine motor skills learned physical abilities involving small body movements finger skills: newborns have strong reflexive grasps but lack hand and finger control ethnic variations all healthy infants develop skills in the same sequence chapter 5 9/10/13 active perception – opportunity for perception or interaction offered by person place or object in environment sensory awareness immediate motivation current development past experience piaget infants are smart and active learning , adapting to experience individuals go through 4 stages of development: cognition is qualitatively different from one stage to another sensorimotor stage, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational stage assimilation- occurs when child uses exisiting schemes to deal with new information or experiences accommodation- occurs when child adjusts schemes to take new information and experiences into account equilibration- mechanism by which children shift from one stage of thought to the next sensorimotor -birth-2 years -infants construct an understanding of the world by coordinating sensory experiences with physical motoric actions. Sub categories – primary, secondary and tertiary circular reactions Primary- action and response both involve infants own body(1-4 months) Secondary- actions gets a response from another person or object, leading to babys repeating original action (4-8 months) Tertiary- action gets one pleasing result and leads baby to preform similar action to get similar results. 1-1 and a half years old Object permanence- Realization that objects still exsist when theyre out of sight Attention Focusing of mental resources on select information - orienting / investigative attention - sustained/ focused attention habitiuation: decreased responsiveness to a stimulus 9/12/13 infants use emptions for communication. Also for behavioral organization- how they adapt to the world primary emotions - present in the first 6 months - surprise interest, joy, anger, sadness, fear and disgust self conscious emotions this require a sense of ―me‖ develop within 6-24 months what are the first two forms of emotional communication? Types of cry -basic anger and pain types of smile reflexive- appears in the first month, not due to externam stimulus social- appears around 2 months, is a response to a stimulus how do infants regulate their emotion? -distract themselves -define their feelings -suck their thumbs -primarily up to caretakers soothing them classifying temperament chess and Thomas classifications -easy child - positive, quickly establishes regular routines, adapts easily to change -difficult child - negative and cries frequently, irregular daily routines, slow to accept change -slow to warm child - low activity level, negative , low intensity of mood. Robart and bates classification - extraversion o –positive, impulsive and active - negative affectivity o fear, frustration sadness and discomfort - effortful control o attention shifting, self regulation chuckie in the video adapts horrible to change he has low extraversion, high negative affectivity and high effortful control development of independence trust vs mistrust (erkison) - first year of life - can the child trust the carertaker? Movement - being able to interact with environment can initiate socialization self recognition test(aka rouge test) - 15 – 18 months autonomy vs shame and doubt (erikson) build independence or foster dependence face –to-face play - age 2-3 months - creates positive emotional state still face paradigm – get mad when you don’t interact with them or are unresponsive peer interest - shown at 6 months - 18-24 months, increase in reciprocal play social orientation goal directed behavior- people have inentions - by 12 months - gaze following o infant looks where other person is looking - joint attention o infant focusesses on the same thing as other person - social referencing o a child will look for cues about how to react hary harlow monkey experiment phase 1: 0-2 months direct attatchment ro humans phase 2 2-7 months attatchment is focued on one figure can now tell who strangers are phase 3 7-24 months specific attatchents develop -locomotor skills enable more socialization phase 4 24 months + children understand that others have goals and feeling s - effects their behavior securely attatched child explores with mother when mom leaves they are upset when mom returns theyre happy to see them and want to explore more securely attached - consistently available - affectionate - sensitive to childs needs and desire to interact insecure avoidant child doesn’t explore with parent mom leaves child doesn’t care mom comes back doesn’t interact and may avoid contact parent is : unavailable and rejects child not affectionate irritable insecrure resistant child is clingy and wont explore when parent leaves child is extremely upset mom comes back child is still upset and refuses comfort parent is inconsistent low interaction not very affectionate insecure disorganized parent is there and the child is confused by the environment, afraid parent leaves and the child is ambivalent(not care) or very upset parent returns and they avoid and resists comfort formed when parent is abusive or neglectful possibly depressed significance of attatchment securely attatched: - high self esteem - high self confidence - emotional health - socially competent - enhanced problem solving skills raising a child parenting: ―you can not spoil a child within the first year‖ - be affectionate - be consistent scaffolding - taking turns with the child teaches joint attention and social interaction goodness of fit -match between a childs temperament and environmental demands engage in corrective methods -avoiding tantrums, excessive crying, throwing things -different methods for age - under 12 months – distraction gender differences when are men more likely to be more involved? - when the mom works more - when the parents are young - when the kids are boys - when theres high marital intimacy differences in child interaction -men more likely to play more likely to rough and tumble play women more likely to care for childs needs play is less arousing 9/17/13 chapter 7 preoperational thoughts children represent the world with words, images and drawings children form stable concepts and begin to reason cognition are dominated by egoecentrism and magical beliefs, animism and irreversibility the symbolic function substage 2-4 years of age child gains the ability to mentally represent intuitive thought substage 4-7 years of age children use primitive reasoning and want to know the answers to questions – many how and why questions have difficulty understanding events that cannot be seen children are unaware of how they know what they know centration- centering attention on one characteristic to the exclusion of all others criticisms of piagets theory -childrens thinking is not as consistent as the stage suggested - can sometimes do a task, sometimes not - can sometimes do one type of conservation task but not others - infants and young children are more competent than piaget recognized vygotskys theory - children think and understand primarily through social interaction - zone of proximal development: range of task that are too difficult for the child alone but that can be learned with guidance - scaffolding: guided participation- changing level of support childrens theories theory-theory: children actively construct theories to explain their world theory of mind: awareness of ones own mentsl process and by the mental processes of others by 3 years – begin understand three mental states perceptions, desires, and emotions 3-5 years understand false beliefs 5-9- appreciatiom of the mind false beliefs age and brain maturity leaner and taller average growth is 2.5 inches to 5-7 pounds per year during early childhood growth patterns vary individually two most important contributors to heigh differences: ethnic origin and nutrition brain growth slows during early childhood center of gravity to belly button myelination- increases and efficiency of neuronal transmission by age 6: more regular sleep improved emotion regulation impulsiveness 09/19/13 chapter 8 socioemotional development in early childhood the play years -becoming boys and girls -parenting styles -emotional development identity as male or female important feature of childs self- concept, major source of self esteem. By age 2 : ability to use gender lables Age 3- rudimentary understanding that sex distictions are lifelong Age 4- conviction that certain toys and behaviors/roles are appropriate for one gender but not the other Age 5- awareness that persons sex is biological characteristic, not determined by words, opinions,clothing (sex vs gender) Theories of gender differences Rooted in biology vs influenced by experiences How much is biological(hormones, brain structure, body shape)? How much is environmental(culture,family) Psychoanalytic theory Frued Period from 3-6 years: phallic stage Phallus central focus of pleasure or concern, related to becoming aware of own sexual organs Opedipus complex- unconscious desire to replace father to win mothers heart Electra complex- unconscious desire to replace mother and win fathers exclusive love Identitification- taking on same sex parent behavior/attitude to cope with guilt Unresolved phallic stage- obsession with punishment , homophobia and homosexuality Behaviorism – skinner Rewards for behavior a certain way. Reward and punishment All roles (also gender roles) are learned ; result from nurture (not nature) Reward for gender appropriate behavior Punishment for gender inappropriate behavior Albert banduras social cognitive theory Reciprocal determinism Imitation and modeling – sufficient for learning ; reinforcement can increase imitation but not necessary for learning. Social cognitive theory Gender development occurs through observation and imitation, rewards and punishment Gender schema- (gender-appropriate vs innapropriate) Reduces complexity Sociocultural theory Rocial role theory- gender differences result from the contrasting roles of women and men Traditional cultures enforce gender distictions- stories, taboos, terminology Epigenetics Epi= around, near genetic = entire genome Surrounding factors that affect genetic expression Genes interact with environment to allow development, dynamic and recipriocal interaction Psychology, biology, chemistry, genetics. Epigenetics theory Traits and bahevaior result of gene experience interaction Biological differences: chromosomes and hormones, male brains large, female brains more connections Environmental influences as well Parenting styles Can differ on 4 demetions Expressions of warmth Discipline strategies Communication Expectations of maturity Always in interaction with childs personality and social/cultural context Patterns of parenting Baumrind 1967,1971 Authrotitarian – boss, very strict (child- quiet not happy) Permissive – very lenient(child- lack of self control, dependent) Authoritative- warm with guidance (successful, happy, generous) Seven years old up Bruce- doesn’t live with parents goes to private school. Has discipline, much unlike other 7 year olds. Bruce plays musical instruments with everyone. He has a girlfriend in Africa and 2 in Switzerland. Learning another language. Stop talking at the ding of a bell. Eat properly, which is different. Hes rich. Africa. Teach people who are not civilized to be good. Suzy- fashion school, boyfriend at 7. Has a nanny. The exercise is classical ballet. She is engaged in proper dancing etc. She has discipline unlike the others that have free play. They think it’s a disctition for the future. Michelle and her friends have free play. She has tea and watches tv. She does homework and sees her father. She goes to bed at 7. Most of the other kids have tea and watch tv. Wants 2 children. She wants a nanny to look after them. Doesn’t like anyones whos colored. Don’t want to know them. Balloon fight, covering her ears just standing back. Acts proper. Wants to go to university. Not sure which one. Neil- Liverpool. Lives in town. You can always have shelter. They play games with boys and girls together. The girls scream a lot. Married but no children because theyre always doing naught things and making the place dirty. Don’t like colored people. Autronaut then a coach driver. Wants to take people to the country. Where they are and what were going to do. Tony and michelle- boys and girls in classrooms. Rich children- boast, and make fun of poor people. Thtye throw things at poor kids. (rich kids) Poor kid- they think rich people can do whatever they want. Poor kid didn’t know what university meant, policeman Rich kids read the newspaper Childrens homes boys during free play – wanted to build a house September24,2013 School years Size and shape Growth rate slows down, muscle mass and strength gradually increases, lung capacity expands Gross and fine motor skills improve - boys outperform girls in large muscle activities and girls usually outperform boys on fine motor skills low body moss index -typically slim, baby fat decreases vulnerability for overweight genetic predisposition- alles of FTO gene, affect activity level, food preferences, body type, metabolic rate environment famil
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