Education - Special Education, School Psychology and Early Childhood Studies
1/14/14 Notes Types of Disabilities: Home, Community, Workplace
W.H.O. – Disability is an umbrella term covering impairments, activity
limitations, and participation restrictions
Impairment- Body function or structure issue (physical/cognitive)
Activity limitation- Difficulty performing tasks or actions
Participation restriction- problem experienced by individuals involvement
in life situations (work experiences, living in community, driving etc.)
ADA- Disabilities- Physical or mental impairment that substantially limits one
or more major life activities.
Record of impairment/regarded as having impairment.
Models for Defining Disabilities
Moral/ Medical/Social Models
Medical Model- Diagnose/identify the problem (assumed to be within the
individual+needs to be fixed), gives treatment such as prosthetics, cochlear
implants, medications etc. to fix/treat issue.
Moral Model – Says disabilities are present because of ‘wrong’that people
have done. Believe disabilities are a punishment for wrong people have
done. Model of ‘blame’, ‘shame’, negative ideas of people with disabilities.
Child born with disability ~assumed parents had done something bad.
“Judgment of the gods”
Social Model- Problems within the environment create the disability.
Buildings not accessible, transport, doors etc.
Impact of Disabilities- Changes individuals life circumstances, affect how they
participate in everyday activities, can affect all parts of an individuals life.
3 Overarching Issues to Impairment
Access-Getting into a building (issues w/physical disabilities)
Communication- Receptive: person able to hear and understand what is being said
Expressive- Can person convey messages that the environment can
Discrimination- Implications o