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EUH 3931 (6)


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University of Florida
EUH 3931
Katalin Rac

Society and Religion a. Europe in transition 1. countries consolidating land 2. religious changes may help stop this process How? b. reformation first in Germany and Switzerland 1. 65 imperial cities led to mixed results c. some groups supported more than others 1. guilds 2. people who felt pushed around d. peasants also liked what they heard as their rights were being taken from them II. Criticism of Church a. problems with medieval church 1. Avignon, Great Schism, Renaissance popes b. people wanted more heartfelt, idealistic teaching 1. pope did not see it this way c. lay concerns 1. more knowledgeable d. in position to bring change to local areas 1. believed in simplicity of belief 2. self sacrifice 3. members have say 4. based on new testament 5. ex. Lollards and Hussites e. Brother of the Common Life start movement known as Modern Devotion 1. established by Gerald Groote 2. centered in Netherlands 3. stress individual piety and practical religion 4. no special rules for lay people 5. pushed education including Erasmus 6. conservative movement that pushed personal piety 7. vernacular used II. Lay control of religious life a. church life in some areas falling apart 1. selling offices hurt 2. church officials did not allows live in town b. financial abuse 1. indulgences 2. rulers backed idea if they could keep some money c. use of preacherships on local level met a need 1. start of protestant preachers c. magistrates began to crackdown on church rights 1. try to limit growth 2. land and asylum III. Martin Luther a. Germany not united which made reform hard 1. population especially upset with abuses b. taught by Brothers of Common Life 1. enter monastery after storm 2. moves to Wittenberg 1512 c. could medieval church provide personal or intellectual satisfaction? 1. righteousness of god bothered Luther 2. he backed justification d. indulgence - remission of temporal penalty imposed by priest on penitents as a “work of satisfaction” 1. suffer in purgatory if work not done e. Pope Clement VI - treasury of merit 1. could be sold as indulgence 2. at first works, later purgatory f. by Luther’s time 1. pay cash 2. for your and ded relatives deads g. John Tetzel brought in to raise money for Rome and Augsburg banking house of Fugger h. Luther posted 95 thesis as a protest 1. humanist and reformers backed ideas 2. Luther becomes famous i. Emperor Maximilian I died taking focus off Luther j. Charles I of Spain becomes Charles V 1. Fugger banking house purchased votes 2. Charles made concessions that made it harder to stop Reformation III. Luther’s Excommunication a. debates John Eck in Leipzig 1519 1. challenged infallibility of pope 2. defended scripture alone 3. defended John Huss b. 1520 three pamphlets 1. Address to the Christian Nobility of the German Nation - urged princes to push reform 2. Babylonian Captivity of the Church - baptism and Eucharist only sacraments, scriptures, councils, princes over pope 3. Freedom of a Christian - salvation by faith c. excommunicated Jan 3, 1521 d. told to recant at Diet of Worms 1. made an outlaw when he would not 2. went into hiding 3. translated New Testament into German e. Emperor distracted by war with France and Ottoman advances 1. Need help from german princes 2. gave them freedom to act on religious matters f. magistrates and princes passed laws to help reformation spread 1. princes wanted to break away from Catholic Emperor 2. elector of Saxony/prince Hesse g. internal problems hurt movement 1. many disliked Luther h. peasants believed Luther supported their political and economic rights 1. wanted to end serfdom i. peasants revolt 1524-25 1. Lutherans not revolutionaries 2. Luther condemned revolt urged princes to crush it 3. 70000-100,000 die j. tough choice 1. support for revolt would end his efforts 2. lack of supported end chance for revolutionary change III. Reformation Elsewhere a. Switzerland and France had own movements b. preconditions for Switzerland 1. opposition to mercenary service and church reform c. Ulrich Zwingli leader of reformation in Switzerland 1. humanist critic of mercenary service 2. against indulgences/superstition 3. leader of Zurich church 4. ended celibacy d. believed if not in scripture don’t follow 1. city government backed this idea 2. Zurich leader of Swiss movement e. Germany and Swiss efforts could not unite due to disagreements between Luther and Zwingli 1. is Eucharist(communion) - symbolic or not f. Philip of Hesse tried to work things out 1. no luck - separate defense leagues form g. civil war breaks out on switzerland 1. two major battle at Kappel 1529 and 1531 2. Zwingli killed in second 3. end result was each Conton could decide religion IV. Radical Protestants a. some groups felt reformation was not enough for moral reform b. Anabaptist were ancestors to Mennonites and Amish 1. no infant baptism 2. refused to go to war, swear oaths or serve in secular government 3. began separate societies that were seen as a threat c. Conrad Grebel started Anabaptist d. Attacked in cities by other groups 1. became a rural movement e. rebaptism became illegal in HRE in 1529 1. 1,000 may have been killed for practice f. extreme Anabaptist came to power in Munster 1534-35 1. led by Jan Matthys and Jan Leiden 2. allowed polygamy 3. crushed by united catholic and protestant armies d. Spiritualist were against all institutions 1. God’s spirit was only authority 2. leaders Sebastian Frank and Caspar Schwenckfeld e. Antitrinitarians backed commonsense, ethical, rational religion 1. leaders Michael Servetus and Faustus Sozzini 2. believed in toleration and disliked Calvinist V. John Calvin a. replaces Lutheranism 1. France, Netherlands, Scotland 2. believed in predestination and individual’s responsibility to reorder society b. Max Weber writes The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism 1. religious confidence and self discipline led to capitalism c. John Calvin grew up in well to do family and had a good education 1. moves to Geneva 2. gives up benefices d. Geneva accepted Reformation after political revolution against local prince bishop(1535) 1. Calvin arrives 1536 e. Calvin leaves the city when rules for the new church not accepted. 1. worried about moral controls 2. new pope f. Institutes of the Christian Religion is the definitive statement on the Protestant faith g returns to Geneva 1540 1. city wanted independence from Bern 2. saw Calvin as useful h. organization of church 1. pastors - five 2. teachers and doctors - instruct and defend 3. elders - oversee lives of all 4. deacons - dispense services i. Calvin transformed society morally 1. regulatory court enforced moral discipline 2. had a role in the death of Michael Servetus j. many believers of Calvinism moved to city 1. Geneva was only free city 2. women’s paradise 3. Presbyterianism established Scotland by John Knox (1505-1572) in 1560. · Presbyters governed the church · Became the dominant religion in Scotland 4. Huguenots – French Calvinists; brutally suppressed in France · Especially strong among the nobility although Calvinism saw converts from every social class. VI. Political Consolidation of Reformation a. 1530 Charles orders all Protestants to revert to Catholicism at Diet of Augsburg 1. too far along by now b. Schmalkaldic League was a defensive league to protect protestants 1. Landgrave Philip of Hesse and Elector John Frederick of Saxony c. Lutheranism spread to Nordic countries of Denmark, Sweden 1. wanted church lands d. Philip Melanchthon led educational reforms 1. compulsory education 2. girls schools 3. religious instruction e. Charles V crushes Protestant Schmalkaldic League 1. puppet rulers put into Saxony and Hesse 2. mandated return of Catholic beliefs 3. Protestants on the run f. things have gone to far to turn back 1. Charles issues Peace of Passau(1552) which reinstated leaders and religious freedom g. Peace of Augsburg made division permanent 1. ruler would decide 2. converts could not take titles or lands 3. could move 4. no recognition for Calvinism and Anabaptists V. The English Reformation A. Early English reformers 1. John Wyclif’s followers (the Lollards) still existed in certain regions of England by the 16th century 2. William Tyndale, a humanist, translated the English Bible in 1526 · Became the basis for the King James version (early 1600s). · Tyndale was hunted down and executed in 1536 after thousands of English Bibles had made their way to England (only Latin or Greek translations were allowed). 2. Henry sought an annulment from his wife, Catherine of Aragon, because she could not conceive a son 1. Only one daughter, Mary, had survived out of five childbirths 2. Having a son was necessary to preserve the strength of the Tudor dynasty. · Mary was betrothed to the dauphin of France. If she inherited the throne from Henry, England would become subject to French control. 3. Henry believed that God was punishing him for having married his brother’s widow (a passage he referenced in the Book of Leviticus in the Bible) a. He had earlier received a papal dispensation allowing him to marry Catherine. b. Now
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