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EUH 3931 (6)
Lecture

Unit 2 Notes.pdf

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Department
History
Course
EUH 3931
Professor
Katalin Rac
Semester
Fall

Description
IV. French Civil Wars (at least 9 wars between 1562-1598) A. After the death of Henry II in 1559 a power struggle between three noble families for the Crown ensued 1. The throne remained in the fragile control of the Catholic Valois family. a. French kings from 1559 to 1589 were dominated by their mother, Catherine de Médicis who as regent fought hard to maintain Catholic control in France throne if the Valois did not produce a male heir. 2. Between 40-50% of nobles became Calvinists (Huguenots)—many were Bourbons a. Many nobles ostensibly converted for religious reasons but sought independence from the crown. b. Resulted in resurgence of feudal disorder in France c. The Bourbons were next in line to inherit the throne if the Valois did not produce a male heir. 3. The ultra-Catholic Guise family also competed for the throne; strongly anti-Bourbon 4. Fighting began in 1562 between Catholics & Calvinists · Atrocities against rival congregations occurred B. St. Bartholomew Day Massacre (August, 24, 1572) 1. Marriage of Margaret of Valois to Protestant Huguenot Henry of Navarre on this day was intended to reconcile Catholics and Huguenots. 2. Rioting occurred when the leader of Catholic aristocracy, Henry of Guise, had a leader of the Huguenot party murdered the night before the wedding. 3. Catherine de Médicis ordered the massacre of Calvinists in response · 20,000 Huguenots killed by October 3 4. The massacre initiated the War of the Three Henrys: civil wars between Valois, Guise, and Bourbons C. Henry IV (Henry of Navarre) (r. 1589-1610): became the first Bourbon king 1. One of the most important kings in French history 2. His rise to power ended the French Civil Wars and placed France on a gradual course towards absolutism 3. Henry was a politique (like Elizabeth I in England) a. Sought practical political solutions (rather than ideological ones like Philip II): somewhat Machiavellian in nature b. He converted to Catholicism to gain the loyalty of Paris (He allegedly stated: “Paris is worth a mass”) c. Privately he remained a Calvinist 4. Edict of Nantes, 1598: Henry IV granted a degree of religious toleration to Huguenots a. Permitted Huguenots the right to worship privately · Public worship, however, was not allowed · Huguenots not allowed to worship at all in Paris and other staunchly Catholic cities. b. Gave Huguenots access to universities, to public office, and the right to maintain some 200 fortified towns in west and southwestern France for selfprotection. c. In reality, the Edict was more like a truce in the religious wars rather than recognition of religious tolerance. · Nevertheless, the Edict gave Huguenots more religious protection than perhaps any other religious minority in Europe. D. Spain vs. England 1. Queen Mary Tudor (Philip II’s wife) had tried to reimpose Catholicism in England a. came to power after overthrow of Lady Jane Grey b. lost Calais to French 2. repealed protestant statues a. hundreds die b. “Marian Exiles” fled (John Knox) c. waited to return/learned 3. Elizabeth I succeeds Mary 1. Sir William Cecil 2. enjoyed great success 4. Reversed Mary’s laws - Act of Supremacy a. creates Anglican church b. Act of Uniformity - use of Common Prayer book c. Thirty-Nine Articles - Church of England - protestant 5. radicals on both sides 1. Catholics majority 6. Spain helps radical catholics a. Elizabeth later refused Philip’s request for marriage. b. Elizabeth helped the Protestant Netherlands gain independence from Spain 7. Elizabeth crushed threats a. killed fewer than Mary 8. careful with Puritans a. wanted end to Catholic ceremony in the church and Royal control b. form Presbyterians c. allowed as long as it did not threaten Queen’s control 9. Congregationalists wanted complete autonomy a. Conventicle Act of 1593 forced them convert, leave or die E. Problems with Spain 1. 1567 Spain attacks Netherlands a. threat to England 2. Pope excommunicated Queen a. wanted England attacked 3. England and France sign defense pact a. fear Spain 4. John Hawkins and Francis Drake pirate Spanish ships 5. Queen backed protestants in England and Spain 6. Execution of Mary Queen of Scots a. had claim on throne F. Spanish Armada, 1588 1. Drake’s attack on Cadiz and Portugal hold off Spanish attack 2. 130 ships and 25,000 men set sail for England a. English and Dutch had faster ships b. lacked troop barges 3. Spain goes into decline after defeat a. Philip dies 1598 b. weak successors 4. Elizabeth dies 1603 V. Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648) – most important war of the 17th century A. Failure of the Peace of Augsburg, 1555 1. The 1555 agreement had given German princes the right to choose either Catholicism or Lutheranism as the official religion of their states. 2. The truce in Germany lasted for 60 years until factionalism in the Holy Roman Empire precipitated a cataclysmic war a. all parts of Europe somehow involved b. settles political map 3. 360 autonomous regions of Germany made it hard to govern a. each had own tolls, tariffs, money, travel hard 4. Germany in center of Europe and highway for trade 5. problems between princes and HR emperor a. worried about Catholic takeover b. wanted to protect rights c. emperor willing to use force 6. Lutherans and Catholics split HRE 50 - 50 a. distrust prevailed due to each side claiming land in others territory b. Lutherans more successful c. catholic rulers upset former catholic kept benefits d. fighting between protestants e. threat from science 7. Calvinist gain foothold in Palatinate Germany under Frederick III a. headed defense alliance that received form other Protestant countries b. missionaries into Lutheran/Catholic areas c. threat to Lutherans 8. Maximilian duke of Bavaria starts Catholic League a. backed by Spain and the Jesuits b. won back some cities c. fields large army under Johann van Tilly 9. War had four periods 10. Bohemian Phase a. 1618 Hapsburg Ferdinand comes to power in Bohemia b. strong Catholic in line for HRE 11. Ferdinand revoked protestant rights in Bohemia a. protestants responded by throwing regents out the window(they lived) - de
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