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EUH 3931
Katalin Rac

D. Oliver Cromwell 1. factors that led to victory for Parliament a. Scots join to form Solemn League b. Presbyterian system stays c. Oliver Cromwell takes command 2. Cromwell wins battles of Marston Moor and Naseby a. Charles tries to win over Presbyterians and Scots but Cromwell bars them from Parliament b. Charles executed and monarchy abolished c. House of Lords and Anglican church also gone 3. Puritan republic from 1649-1660 a. Great Britain formed when Ireland and Scots defeated 4. Cromwell disbands Parliament 1653 after threat to disband army a. becomes Lord Protector b. hated due to huge budget and intolerance of Anglicans c. strict moral rules d. people ready to go back to tradition when he died in 1658 e. Charles II becomes king 1660 5. Charles II the perfect king but he had Catholic sympathies a. wanted religious toleration b. Parliament pass Clarendon Code which outlawed Catholics, Presbyterians, and Independents 6. navigation acts required goods to be shipped on British ships or on ships from point of origin a. war with Holland breaks out b. tightened grip on colonies 7. Treaty of Dover promised French support for war against British a. Charles promised to convert to Catholic 8. Test Act forces officials to swear on oath against transubstantiation a. aimed at James, duke of york 9. Charles crushed opposition in final years a. packed Parliament with supporter for James II 10. James Blew it a. repealed Test Act b. appoints Catholics to high posts c. allows open worship d. opposition unites when he has a son 11. Member of Parliament invite William of Orange to invade a. married to Mary 12. William is welcomed by English people 1. James flees to France 2. William and Mary appointed monarchs by Parliament 3. GLorious Revolution because bloodless 13. William agrees to English Bill of Rights a. limited powers of monarch b. protected rights of privilege classes c. had to follow law/rule at consent of Parliament d. Parliament meets every three years e. No catholics on throne f. Toleration Act 1689 - all protestants could worship * no catholics or anti-trinitarians 14. Act of Settlement 1701 - House of Hanover would be King if Queen Anne has not surviving children a. George I 1714 15. Monarch power permanently checked a. right to dipose E. Rise of Absolute Monarchy on France 1. absolute monarchy and catholic state stops discontent 2. rulers and ministers lay the groundwork 50 years before Louis XIV a. come to realize that King and nobles needed each other b. recognize each other power c. Louis XIV made King senior partner 3. Henry of Navarre - Henry VI a. wanted to curtail noble power especially regional parliaments 4. duke of Sully - finance minister for Henry IV a. creates govt monopolies in gunpowder, salt b. canal system c. corvee - labor tax 5. Louis XIII too young to rule a. Marie de Medicis signed Treaty of Fontainebleau with Spain for protection b. Louis marries Spanish princess/Elizabeth marry Spanish heir c. Cardinal Richelieu chief minister 6. Richelieu worked to check Spain’s power a. backed protestants but protections for catholics b. France’s power grows at the end of the 30 years war 7. cracked down on noble power/parlements a. many disliked him 8. took away many rights promised to protestants in Edit of Nantes a. Peace of Alais - no garrisoned cities, separate political organizations, law courts b. connections with protestant countries prevented more 9. believed in raison d’etat - reason of the statte 10. Louis XIV five when he comes king a. cardinal Mazarin - chief minister b. Richelieu caused resentment among nobles and commercial groups 11. rebellions(Fronde) - 1649-1652 a. attempt to stop absolute monarchy b. resulted in Louis and Mazarin leaving for a time c. noble control was a mess d. people wanted strong King e. brute force not the answer 10. Louis XIII used intendants to supervise nobles a. prevent abuse in selling offices F. Louis XIV’s rule 1. early rule a. no chief minister b. use of propaganda to promote monarchy c. cooperation with regional parlements d. make nobles power dependent on growth in his power e. crush religious dissent 2. tutor Bishop Jacques-Benigne Bossuet taught Louis divine right of kings a. “I am the state” b. Sun King 3. Versailles way to control nobles a. most important nobles and officials stayed there b. half on revenue spent on palace 4. nobles competed to be around the King a. rituals kept them dependent with little time for revolts b. councils that ran country from families know for service and low in social standing c. King did not meddle on local level 5. stability required religious conformity a. Jesuits and other sects welcomed to France at first b. after a short ban Jesuits become important in education and confessors to Kings 6. Jansenism formed to oppose Jesuits a. no salvation without divine grace b. founded by Cornelius Jansen c. attacked Jesuit religious practices 7. Louis bans them with backing of the pope 1660 8. France in the time of Louis XIV wad based on subsistence economy a. limited commercial success 9. led Europe in bureaucracy, armed forces, unity a. army used to secure borders of France b. wars over succession to the throne of other countries c. other countries form coalitions against France 10. Jean Baptiste Colbert - most brilliant ministers a. centralize the economy under state control 1. limited success 11. Colbert’s successes a. new national industries b. simplified bureaucracy c. reduced unnecessary positions d. fewer tax except nobles e. raised tax(taille) on peasents 12. policy comes to known as Mercantilism a. government control encouraged foreign exports in order to build reserves of bullion b. raise money for wars c. made France into commercial power d. did his over control lead to failure of colonies? 13. 250,000 man army created by Michel Tellier and marquis of Louvois a. added good salaries and discipline b. limited commissions c. promotion by merit d. only single men e. intendants watched f. people supported the changes 14. Sebastien Vauban - military engineer a. fortifying and besieging towns b. trench warfare and defensive frontiers G. Early Wars 1. The War of Devolution a. Louis wanted Spanish Belgian provinces through wife Marie Therse b. Marie renounced throne for dowry that was not paid c. wanted regions of Brabant and Flanders d. Marie had right over Charles II due to first marriage e. triple alliance of England, Sweden, and Holland forms to stop Louis f. backs down and signs Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle 2. 1670 Treaty of Dover made England and France allies a. triple alliance falls apart b. Louis wanted revenge on Dutch over previous war c. invaded Holland in 1672 d. William of Orange becomes leader of Holland and forms a strong army e. HRE, Spain, Loraine, Brandenburg help Holland f. Peace of Nijmwegen ended the war. g. little gained on all sides. 3. Revocation of the Edict of Nantes a. 1.75 Huguenots by 1660 but faced increase persecution b. many leaving 4. Louis measures a. banned from public office and certain professions b. taxes to encourage conversion c. troops put in to Huguenot towns d. Revokes Edict in 1685 5. Louis seen as threat a. Protestants unite against him b. 1 million protestants flee France 6. defensive league of Augsburg forms against Louis in 1686 1. included most of protestant Europe 7. invades palatinate which sets off Nine Years War a. called King William’s War in North America b. stalemate ended with Peace of Ryswick in 1697 c. Holland’s border secures and stopped French expansion into Germany 8. Charles II of Spain dies Nov 1700 a. Louis and Austrian Emperor Leopold claimed throne through grandsons b. Leopold had better claim due to Treaty of Pyrenees 9. Louis fears Habsburg/HRE uniting b. other fear French/Spain unification 10. Charles leave everything to Philip of Anjou(Philip V) a. breaks negotiated deal b. Louis tries to take SPanish Flanders and opens Spanish colonies up to French ships 11. Grand Alliance forms to counter Louis and get fair inheritance for HRE a. 13 year war of Spanish Succession begins 12. disadvantages for France a. lacked money, trained troops, good generals 13. British had better weapons and tactics a. John Churchill whips French b. creates problems for Louis at home 14. Battle of Malplaquet 1709 after terms were refused a. over 30,000 lost in French loss 15. War ended with the Treaty of Utrecht 1713 -England and Treaty of Rastatt - Dutch and HRE a. Philip V now King of Spain b. Britain gets Gilbraltar and Minorca c. House of Hanover - right to British throne 16. Spain’s decline a. Philip used power to meddle in Italian affairs b. lost power to nobles c. by Charles III tried to fix problems it was too late 17. Louis XIV dies Sept 1, 1715 18. Legacy mixed a. wars destroyed life and finances b. push for military glory c. never recovered from financial problems d. no outlet for self government or nobles who could lead e. groundwork for empire 19. not so absolute a. war, religion, economy b. not on local level 1. The Scientific Revolution a. During the 16 century there was a great revival in the study of astronomy. b. Among the Greek writings recovered during the 1500s were those of Aristarchus. c. In the 200s B.C. Aristarchus had proposed the Helio-centric Theory of the earth revolving around the sun. d. Up until this time, most Europeans followed Church doctrine of the Geo-centric Theory. 2. Nicholas Copernicus a. Published his work, “On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres” in 1543. b. Supported the Helio-centric Theory. c. Few people believed in the heliocentric theory for it seemed to contradict the evidence of the senses. d.Copernicus’ idea really was only a theory, for he could not test and prove with the instruments or the mathematics available to him. 3. Tyco Brahe (1546-1601) a. A Danish nobleman, Tycho Brahe built the best observatory of his time, for which he collected extensive data on the location of the stars and planets. b. Brahe did not totally accept Copernicus’ views, as he believed that the earth still occupied the center of the universe and that the other planets revolved around the sun, which in turn revolved around the earth. c. Brahe’s discovery of a new star in 1572, and the appearance of a comet in 1577, shattered the beliefs in an unchanging sky and crystalline spheres. 4. Johann Kepler a. Did great work in astronomy during the early 1600s b. Using mathematics as a tool, he set out to prove Copernicus’ theory. c. Eventually proved, mathematically that Copernicus was correct in his theory. d. Kepler’s findings were not understood by most people who still believed their senses. 5. Galileo Galilei a. By use of the telescope, Galileo disproved the Geocentric theory. b. Provided observable evidence that the earth was not the center of the universe. c. Published his findings in 1632 in a work called “Dialogue on the Two Great Spheres.” d. Galileo was forced to recant his findings or face excommunication by the Church e. Galileo was interested in physics as well as astronomy. f. Discovered the principle of the pendulum, which later helped in the development of the pendulum clock. g. Galileo also helped to disprove the theory of Aristotle that heavier bodies fall at a faster rate than lighter ones. h. This study laid the foundation for the modern study of mechanics. 6. Francis Bacon and Scientific Methodology a. The author of Advancement of Learning (1605) and an advocate of experimental approaches to knowledge, Francis Bacon (1561-1626) formalized empiricism, an approach using inductive reasoning. b. An Englishman, Bacon himself did few experiments but believed empiricism would produce useful, rather than purely theoretical, knowledge. c. practical purpose for human improvement d. help governments Isaac Newton a. The mathematical work of Isaac Newton was the high point of the scientific revolution. b. In 1687, Newton published The Mathematical Principals of Natural Philosophy, better known as the Principia Mathematica. c. Newton reasoned that the planets and all other physical objects in the universe moved through mutual attraction, or gravity. d. The attraction of gravity explained why the planets moved in an orderly rather than a chaotic manner. e. Like Bacon, Newton believed in empiricism, and the idea that one must observe phenomena before attempting to explain them. 7. Connections with the Rest of Society. a. During the Renaissance, many universities established the study of mathematics and physics. b. All of the great scientists involved in the changes in astronomy studied at universities. c. The demands for explorers, especially those at sea, for more accurate measurements of the stars,in creased attention of the detail of the heavenly movements. d. Warfare, particularly the developing use of artillery, required and permitted explanations, involving precise measurements. n e. Initially, Protestant areas were more hostile than Catholic ones to the new learning. f. After Galileo, however, Catholic authorities led in trying to suppress the new ideas. I. Philosophy Responds to Science 1. unhappy with scholastic heritage a. Bacon empirical research b. Descartes exploration of his own thinking c. Newton - scientific method 2. mechanical arrangement of the universe a. focus on mathematics b. command t
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