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Lecture 1

MDU 4830 Lecture 1: Khan Academy MCAT 2015 Psychology and Sociology Notes

102 Pages

Health Outcomes & Policy
Course Code
MDU 4830

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Processing the Environment Sensory Perception Visual Cues Depth, Form, Motion, Constancy Binocular Cues retinal disparity (eyes are 2.5 inches apart). Convergence things far away, eyes are relaxed. Things close to us, eyes contract. Monocular Cues relative size, interposition (overlap), relative height (things higher are farther away), shading and contour, motion parallax (things farther away move slower) oConstancy our perception of object doesnt change even if it looks different on retina. Ex. size constancy, shape constancy, color constancy. Sensory Adaptation Hearing inner ear muscle: higher noise = contract. Touch temperature receptors desensitized Smell desensitized to molecules Proprioception mice raised upside down would accommodate over time, and flip it over. Sight down (ex. Light adaptation, pupils constrict, rods and cones become desensitized to light) and upregulation (dark adaptation, pupils dilate) Webers Law 2 vs. 2.05 lb weight feel the same. 2 vs. 2.2 lb weight difference would be noticeable. The threshold at which youre able to notice a change in any sensation is the just noticeable difference (JND) So now take 5 lb weight, in this case if you replace by 5.2 weight, might not be noticeable. But if you take a 5.5 lb it is noticeable. I = intensity of stimulus (2 or 5 lb), delta I = JND (0.2 or 0.5). Webers Law is delta I to intensity is constant, ex. .22 = .55 = .1. oDelta II = k (Webers Law) If we take Webers Law and rearrange it, we can see that it predicts a linear relationship between incremental threshold and background intensity. oDelta I = Ik. oIf you plot I against delta I its constant Absolute threshold of sensation The minimum intensity of stimulus needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 of the time At low levels of stimulus, some subjects can detect and some cant. Also differences in an individual. Not the same as the difference threshold (JND) thats the smallest difference that can be detected 50 of the time. Absolute threshold can be influenced by a of factors, ex. Psychological states. oExpectations oExperience (how familiar you are with it) oMotivation oAlertness Subliminal stimuli stimuli below the absolute threshold. The Vestibular System Balance and spatial orientation Focus on inner ear in particular the semicircular canals (posterior, lateral, and anterior) Canal is filled with endolymph, and causes it to shift allows us to detect what direction our head is moving in, and the strength of rotation. Otolithic organs (utricle and saccule) help us to detect linear acceleration and head positioning. In these are Ca crystals attached to hair cells in viscous gel. If we go from lying down to standing up, they move, and pull on hair cells which triggers AP. Also contribute to dizziness and vertigo oEndolymph doesnt stop spinning the same time as we do, so it continues moving and indicates to brain were still moving even when weve stopped results in feeling of dizziness. Signal Detection Theory Looks at how we make decision under conditions of uncertainty discerning between important stimuli and unimportant noise At what point can we detect a signal oOrigins in radar is signal a small fish vs. large whale. oIts role in psychology which words on second list were present on first list. oReal world example traffic lights. Signal is present or absent (red). Strength of a signal is variable d, and c is strategy od: hit > miss (strong signal), miss 1, conservative. oBeta, set value of threshold = to the ratio of height of signal distribution to height of noise distribution. lnbeta = d x C = 1 x 1.5 = 1.5 BottomUp vs. TopDown Processing Bottom up: stimulus influences our perception. Topdown: background knowledge influences perception. Ex. Wheres waldo Gestalt Principles Similarity items similar to one another grouped together Pragnanz reality is often organized reduced to simplest form possible (Ex. Olympic rings) Proximity objects that are close are grouped together Continuity lines are seen as following the smoothest path Closure objects grouped together are seen as a whole Sight (Vision)
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