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Lecture 1

MCB 2000 Lecture 1: 2000 Exam One Studyguide

3 Pages

Microbiology and Cell Science
Course Code
MCB 2000
Asghari Karim

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MCB 2000 Exam One Study-guide
 
a. the most significant effect of the microorganisms on earth is their ability to recycle the primary elements
that make up all living systems, especially carbon (C), oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N).
b. 
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  
! "#$%
& '
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, "-*"*"*
. "/0#/
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 "-*
 *"23
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, 900*
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MCB 2000 Exam One Study-guide 1. List few ways how microorganisms interact with other organisms and help maintain the balance of nature a. the most significant effect of the microorganisms on earth is their ability to recycle the primary elements that make up all living systems, especially carbon (C), oxygen (O) and nitrogen (N). b. Nitrogen fixation c. 2. Describe a simple experiment that can demonstrate that microorganism are everywhere 3. List several important contributions made by Pasteur to the science of microbiology 4. What were Robert Koch major contributions to microbiology 5. Define Genomics 6. What is the significance of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in fat molecules 7. What are steroids? Their significances? Give two examples 8. What do enzymes do? What are they made of? What is meant by catalyst? 9. What is the function of DNA / RNA 10.What is the connection between oxidation/reduction and loss/gain of electron 11.List examples of bacterial morphology. What are the relative sizes of different cells? 12.Describe the important features of plasma membrane? What is meant by fluid-mosaic model, semi-permeable or selective permeability? Which molecules can easily pass through cell membrane without help of carriers? 13.Define/compare passive diffusion/active transport and simple/facilitated diffusion 14.List the differences between electron acceptors and electron carriers? Give an example of each. 15.What is meant by terminal electron acceptor? Give examples of e acceptors for aerobic and anaerobic respiration 16.How substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP) differs from oxidative phosphorylation. 17.How can NAD be regenerated from NADH? Why cells must convert NADH back to NAD. 18.Compare aerobic respiration/anaerobic respiration/fermentation? 19.What are the high-energy compounds? Name four 20.What is meant by the primary producers? Give examples of these microorganisms 21.Define chemiosmosis theory. 22.Compare cell envelope of G- vs. G+ (differences in cell wall/cell membrane/etc) 23.Give examples of Polymers/Monomers/building blocks/how they are put (bond) together/where in cell they are found. What are their uses/functions? 24.List the importance of protein molecules. Define a polypeptide. List the Forces and bonds involved in primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure of proteins? What is the significance of H bonds in the function of proteins and DNA/RNA? 25.List the three units that are used to describe microbes? How long is a micrometer? 26.Define wet mounts and Hanging drop? 27.What are different variations of light microscope? What is the difference between electron microscopy and light microscopy? Compare the two forms of electron microscopy. What is the significance of fluorescent microscopy? 28.What are the differences between photosynthesis and other forms of metabolism? 29.Define osmosis, hypotonic, isotonic, and hypertonic solutions. 30.How temperature and pH may affect the cell. Define max, min and optimum growth temperature? 31.Draw a typical growth curve and label different phases of growth. Define generation time. Which stage of growth curve is used to measure generation time? How one may define/measure bacterial growth. What is Optical Density (OD). How one measures OD. Define binary fission 32. Define microbe. What is unit of life? What are the hallmarks (minimum requirements of life) of a cell? Why viruses do not fit in this picture. 33.What are the three domains of microorganisms, what are the five kingdoms of living organisms? Which one are prokaryotes/eukaryotes? Which domain or kingdom do viruses belong to? Explain. 34.Define different forms of chemical reactions: endergonic, exergonic, synthetic, decomposing, dehydrating, and hydrolytic reactions 35.What is a typical polypeptide made of (its building blocks)? What bonds hold its molecules together? 36.What are the components of a nucleotide? 37.What are enzymes? The cha
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